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UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet and IUVA website. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.

UV Articles 2006

UV News November 27, 2006: UV rays improve Kawerau's water

Kawerau residents will have access to safer drinking water by the middle of next year.

A new ultraviolet treatment plant is to be installed in the district's water supply system in March.

Council spokesperson Tom McDowall says the plant works by having the water flow past an ultraviolent light.

He says that light kills all the bugs in the water before it is distributed to the community.

The treatment was chosen in response to the community's opposition to the permanent use of chlorine as a disinfecting agent in the water supply.

UV News November 24, 2006: Emerging trends in UV disinfection
News Release from: Aquionics
Edited by the Processingtalk Editorial Team on 24 November 2006

The UV disinfection industry has experienced tremendous growth over the last 20 years: UV is no longer 'emerging' technology, but accepted technology to be used routinely to safeguard human health.

The UV disinfection industry has experienced tremendous growth over the last 20 years. The development of new UV technologies over this period is a perfect example of an industry investing to meet market demand - in this case a demand for an effective, low cost, and environmentally friendly disinfection technology. The acceptance of UV disinfection at water plants treating in excess of one billion gallons daily is proof that UV is no longer an 'emerging' technology, but rather an accepted technology to be used routinely by engineers to safeguard human health.

The UV industry continues to change, grow and invent new products and applications. This article briefly explores some of the emerging trends.

INDUSTRY MATURITY.

Virtually all of the leading innovative, entrepreneurial UV companies have now been acquired by major, multi-product, financially mature industrial groups such as Danaher, Halma, Siemens, ITT and Suez.

This has induced market stability and, whilst this will ensure highly professional product offerings and delivery, it also means that many of these newly acquired companies must either become or remain profitable to justify the investment made in them.

The regulatory acceptance of UV for treating drinking water (particularly in the USA), and regulatory standards for validating new UV reactor designs, all signal a major shift in the acceptance of the technology into the mainstream.

The UV industry has experienced double digit sales growth over the last 20 years, and combined annual sales of UV products will soon be in excess of US$500M.

The formation of the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) in 1999 provides a forum for information dissemination and self-regulation, and the imminent USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual to assist engineers and owners in the design, operation and maintenance of UV systems will further standardise the use of UV.

NEW TECHNOLOGY.

The use of computational fluid dynamics modeling has vastly improved the manufacturers ability to predict with confidence the level of treatment required for unique waters using their proprietary equipment.

System sizing is no longer a black art, as the selected manufacturer can work with the design engineer to accurately predict treatment levels under varying conditions of water quality and flow.

All UV equipment manufacturers will soon use this tool to optimise the dose delivery of their reactors and minimise energy costs.

As manufacturers develop and improve optimised reactors, they will then validate the designs using USEPA or European validation protocols. These optimised reactors will be rolled out over the next several years.

Conventional UV lamp technology will also improve.

Medium pressure lamps will continue to see gains in energy efficiency, lamp life and power density, with Quartz coating techniques extending lamp life to well over 12,000 hours.

This approach will remain favoured for compact, small footprint installations, particularly retrofit, or where automated wiping is required.

Low pressure, high output lamps will also have increasing power, perhaps approaching 1kW, which will decrease the footprint and maintenance requirements for systems using this technology.

Lamp disposal will emerge as a significant issue for low pressure UV installations which use many thousands of low pressure lamps.

New UV light sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) claim to be a technology of the future.

The advantages of LEDs are their ability to concentrate virtually all of the electrical power into a very narrow bandwidth of 260 nm to 262 nm, their vastly superior power efficiencies, a very long lamp life (reported to be greater than 100,000 hours) and, because of their point-source nature, they are not restricted to conventional cylindrical designs.

Likely drawbacks of this promising technology will be in the power supply drives for the lamps, which remain largely in the concept phase.

Other lamp types such as excimer lamps show some advantages, such as being mercury free and having no warm-up time, but are currently limited by low power efficiency and high ballast costs.

The excimers are often also more toxic than the elements they propose to replace.

Another interesting technology involves the use of microwaves to energize a UV lamp without the use of electrodes.

Developers claim to have produced power outputs of up to 1000 W with similar UV outputs to low pressure lamps, which would dramatically improve the footprint and maintenance of low pressure lamp-based systems. The absence of electrodes also greatly increases the lamp life.

This development could well see microwave power supply emerge as the consumable, with the lamp remaining in situ for 4-5 years. The long term effects of using microwaves on sleeve wipers remains unknown.

UV sensor technology has also greatly improved over the last decade, with stable, reliable and germicidally accurate sensors now available and a well regulated calibration protocol now in place.

In addition, manufacturers have improved the proprietary control systems for taking information from the sensors, flowmeters and other monitoring devices and using this information to optimise the performance of their equipment.

They can also interface with the operator at a plant control centre.

The D10 values of more and more micro-organisms is now known, with the list growing all the time.

Most notably, research has confirmed the very low doses required to disinfect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, while also finding several viruses that have an unusually high D10.

As new applications for UV are found, new microbes will be added to existing D10 tables.

A major concern to the UV industry is the issue of reactivation - the apparent ability of some micro-organisms to repair the damage done to their DNA by UV, reactivating their ability to infect.

DNA repair can occur in a closed (dark) system, but is more likely in open systems under direct sunlight (photo-reactivation).

The dose level and lamp type seem to affect the degree of reactivation, with low pressure (single wavelength) UV lamps appearing to be more susceptible to photo-reactivation than medium pressure (multi-wavelength) lamps.

A much larger research effort into the area of photo-reactivation is required and will most likely be forthcoming over the next 5 years.

A significant amount of research has also targeted the question of UV disinfection by-products, specifically the most common water constituents such as chlorine, bromide, nitrate, ozone, NOM, and iron.

At normal UV disinfection doses no significant disinfection by-products have been shown to form.

Research continues with more exotic water constituents.

NEW MARKETS.

By far the greatest potential market for UV disinfection is drinking water.

UV is now accepted as an 'Available Technology' to deactivate Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water and other vulnerable sources.

From 1997 to the present, growth in this market has been generally slow due to several factors, including the uncertainty of sensitivity of Cryptosporidium and Giardia to UV; the lack of a regulatory framework for UV disinfection; the lack of a guidance manual; the lack of case histories and engineering knowledge in the application of UV in drinking water plants; the general conservatism of the water industry; and, finally, the uncertainty of the outcome of several court cases considering a royalty on the use of UV for Cryptosporidium and Giardia destruction.

All of these issues have now either been resolved or resolutions are imminent, paving the way for rapid growth in this market.

Another UV application with much potential is wastewater re-use for irrigation and grey water applications.

Re-use is already common in the US southwest and other areas of acute fresh water shortages such as Florida, Mexico, the Middle East and North Africa.

UV systems for this market are validated to much higher doses than drinking water systems according to protocols established by the National Water Research Institute (NWRI).

Drinking water type product validation, with the accompanying rigour, will emerge as the dominant method of assessing suitability for these critical applications.

The ability to prevent photo repair will also emerge as key.

Another new market for UV is disinfecting water for aquifer storage and recovery.

This involves pumping highly treated wastewater into aquifers to recharge drinking water supplies.

California, Texas and Florida are three states considering this approach.

Finally, UV for advanced oxidation involves the use of UV, either by itself or in combination with the hydroxyl radical, to break down contaminants in water.

This technology has already been successfully used for groundwater remediation, industrial wastewater treatment and drinking water treatment.

Most notably, several large advanced oxidation projects have involved the use of advanced oxidation for NDMA, MTBE, pesticides, taste and odour compounds, and chlorinated solvents.

SUMMARY.

The UV industry has matured considerably over the last decade and is now highly regulated and dominated by major water companies.

Conventional UV technologies have been field tested and now have considerable track records in a wide range of applications.

Uncertainties surrounding regulations, royalties, technology and engineering have decreased and acceptance of UV is expected to grow rapidly over the next 20 years.

Conventional UV designs have been greatly aided by CFD, which will be used as a routine sizing tool for future designs.

Incremental improvements in conventional lamps, sensors and controls will also continue over the next decade.

New technologies such as LED lamps and microwave lamps hold promise of further improvements in electrical efficiency, footprint and cost.

The stage is now set for dramatic growth in the drinking water market, especially if new technologies can bring increased efficiencies and lower costs.

Other applications, such as wastewater reuse and aquifer storage and recovery are smaller, and will grow at slower rates, but are still attractive applications for UV.

The use of UV for advanced oxidation is still in its infancy and is highly dependent on energy costs.

These markets will grow dramatically if newer, more energy efficient technologies are available.

This review of UV disinfection trends was supplied by Jon McClean, President of Aquionics.

UV News November 21, 2006: UV system ensures highest standards in water treatment
Lauren Vopni, Hanna Herald

Henry Kroeger Regional Water Services in Hanna began the installation of their new Ultra Violet water treatment system last week.
 
The new UV disinfection system will allow the plant to reduce the amount of chlorine used to disinfect the water supply as well as providing a multi barrier system to ensure safe and good quality drinking water.
"This is another approach to a multi barrier water treatment system," said Operations Manager Garth Carl. "It will ensure that our water remains safe."

A UV system is not new technology. It was first used in the wastewater industry as a result of concerns about the amount of chlorine being discharged into the environment during treatment. What was discovered is that parasites that can cause intestinal illnesses, such as Cryptosporidium and Giardiasis, would be unable to reproduce after being exposed to the UV light, thus preventing sickness from occurring.

The UV system works by passing water through a series of medium pressure lamps that contain ultra violet bulbs. The plant is installing two UV systems, made by Trojan Technologies, a Canadian company based out of London, Ontario. One unit will operate when water is being treated and the second will act as back up.
 
The new system will be fully operational on Nov. 28 and will cost Henry Kroeger Regional Water Services roughly $500,000. The installation of this system has been in the works since 2003 and is one of many capital projects Henry Kroeger Regional Water Services has planned. They hope to expand their treated water storage facilities and install an on site electrical power generator within the next seven years.

Henry Kroeger Regional Water Services currently serves the community of Hanna as well as Delia and Craigmyle. The plant was built in 1983 and originally drew its raw water supply from a combination of the CN Reservoir, the Helmer Dam and Fox Lake. Carl recalls that when he began in 1984 his chemical budget was over $100,000 annually. When they began drawing their water supply from their current source, Red Deer River, the budget dropped to $20,000, noting that rivers are among the best places to draw a water supply from.

The water volume the plant is required to treat changes seasonally. In the winter the plant will treat roughly 1,800 cubic meters of water per day and more then doubles to 4,600 cubic meters during the summer months.


UV News October 24, 2006: SURFERS TO OPPOSE PLANS TO TURN OFF THE U.V.
Environment News

Campaigners from Surfers Against Sewage (SAS) will be opposing Northumbrian Water’s plans to turn off UV light disinfection outside the bathing season at some sewage treatment works in the North East.

The plans currently lodged with the Environment Agency (EA) have caused concern in the local surfing community, as many surf breaks will see a reduction in water quality if the UV disinfection process is turned off from September to May. Reducing the level of sewage treatment in this way WILL increase the risk of contracting a waterborne disease for recreational water users such as surfers.

Surfing is hugely popular in the North East, and like much of the UK, receives the best surfing conditions outside of the bathing season, the very time Northumbrian Water wish to turn off the higher level of treatment. The affected stretch of coast contains a large number of popular surf breaks, from Hartley reef in the North to Saltburn in the South – it is also home to a significant number of surf related business, university surf clubs, surf schools and a national surf contest site.

Whilst SAS are hugely concerned about the world’s energy consumption and its impact on climate change, turning off a vital sewage treatment process to conserve energy could have devastating effects on not just the marine environment but also the health of those using it for recreation. Such a move would be a significant step backwards in protecting our marine environment from pollution and SAS believe there are other energy saving steps the company should be making first and foremost.

For instance treating water to a potable level and supplying it to customers is also an energy intensive process. Treated water that escapes through leaks is a huge waste of energy. If Northumbrian Water fixed all of its leaks, it could reduce its CO2 emissions by up to an estimated 23,000 tonnes. That’s a CO2 saving ten times greater than the CO2 emissions they’d save by turning off UV for the winter! (Ref 1)

The water company could also be doing more to create its own renewable energy from the sewage treatment process. For example, Severn Trent Water should soon be producing approximately 50% of their sewage works energy requirements by using gas produced from the sewage treatment digestion process.

SAS believe that all water companies can become more energy efficient whilst maintaining the high water quality the UK requires to protect our coastline and those using it for recreation.

Andy Cummins, SAS Campaigns Director says: “It’s easy to turn off a switch for 7 months of the year in a sewage treatment works when you can’t see the impact it will have on the beach for the thousands of recreational water users using this stretch of coastline week in, week out. SAS are concerned that by turning off the UV treatment, Northumbrian Water will be able to reduce their obligations and running costs under the guise of being environmentally responsible and the only people to benefit will be the shareholders through increased profits.

This would be a huge step backwards for the environment, the surfers and the local businesses who have all helped pay for UV disinfection to be added to the treatment works through past water bills and since benefited from a cleaner, safer coastline all year round. SAS will be making an official objection as part of the Environment Agency’s consultation process which closes on the 17th November”.


UV News September 12, 2006: UV Disinfection in the Pharmaceutical Industry
News Release from: Berson UV-techniek,
Edited by the Processingtalk Editorial Team 


The quality standards required for purified water in the production of pharmaceuticals have never been stricter, with manufacturers having to conform to an ever increasing number of international standards. In this article Sjors van Gaalen, Managing Director of Berson UV-techniek, introduces a number of interesting new developments in UV technology for disinfection and dechlorination, relevant to this problem. Ultraviolet (UV) technology was originally used to ensure the adequate disinfection of municipal town mains water.

Since its introduction over 40 years ago, it is now applied globally for disinfection, TOC (total organic carbon) reduction, destruction of ozone and chloramines plus de-chlorination of process water in many different industries, including pharmaceutical manufacturing.

Water is the largest volume material used within pharmaceutical processes and, driven by more stringent standards, increasingly sophisticated process barriers and disinfection techniques have been adopted.

The United States Pharmacopoeia 24th edition (USP 24) defines the quality standard to which water used in this pharmaceutical manufacturing needs to be treated.

Several of the process stages in pharmaceutical production can themselves also cause microbial contamination and UV can therefore be used as an effective barrier to ensure that discrete process stages do not compromise quality standards.

Typical installations include UV for disinfection after carbon filters or before RO and UV for disinfection and TOC reduction in the polishing loop.

A correctly sized UV disinfection system installed downstream of the carbon beds or directly upstream of the RO unit will eliminate at least 99.9% of bacteria present in the inlet water.

UV disinfection systems are generally split into two distinct types: low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP).

LP systems either have a single UV output at 254nm, or a combination of outputs at 185nm and 254nm, whereas MP systems have a very broad UV output between 240-310nm.

In essence, UV works by fusing adenine and thiamine molecules within a micro-organism DNA, rendering it unable to replicate. The micro-organisms are thus destroyed without the use of chemicals.

Whilst 254nm is an effective wavelength for disinfection, it is generally accepted that DNA absorbs UV most effectively at 265nm, a wavelength that MP lamps produce in abundance.

Understanding these differences is fundamental to the design of efficient and effective UV disinfection equipment.

Generally speaking, LP systems are best used on small, intermittent flow applications with MP technology lending itself to higher flow rates.

For LP systems to be effective at destroying DNA, a large number of UV lamps (the mercury-filled tubes that actually produce the UV) are required. This has obvious cost and maintenance implications for the operator. All UV lamps have set lifespans and need replacing after a certain number of hours (normally several thousand).

The more lamps there are, the greater the likelihood that the system will need to be stopped to replace those that fail.

UV monitoring is also more difficult with a large number of lamps - UV monitors are located on the wall of the UV chamber, so if a lamp located away from the chamber wall fails, it may not be detected.

In addition, a large number of lamps impedes fluid flow through the UV chamber, resulting in pressure headloss and higher pumping costs.

In addition to the above points, LP lamps can also be difficult to clean. For instance, iron in solution will often form deposits on the quartz sleeve surrounding the lamp. This affects lamp efficiency and must be kept to a minimum. To overcome this problem MP systems utilise a mechanical wiper which passes back and forth along the length of the quartz sleeve, keeping it clear of iron deposits or other debris.

LP lamp systems typically rely on chemical cleaning. This usually requires the systems to be completely stripped and the sleeves hand-cleaned - a time-consuming process.

For these reasons many operators are switching to the newer, more efficient MP technology for higher flow rates. With a wider - and more powerful - UV output than LP lamps, far fewer MP lamps are required for the same level of disinfection. Headloss is significantly reduced and monitoring is far more effective - an essential requirement in pharmaceutical manufacturing.

They are not temperature sensitive and have rapid start-up times, making them more suitable for complex process applications such as those found in the pharmaceutical industries. Maintenance costs are also reduced as there are physically fewer lamps to replace. Typically, 10-12 LP lamps are required to produce the same UV output as one MP lamp.

LP products are usually used in low flow applications, often installed in the heart of water treatment skids.
Small, single lamp units can be effectively monitored and economically used to treat flows up to around 50m³/h.

UV units can be installed at various points along an ultrapure water system. Installation or retrofitting to existing pipework and vessels is relatively straightforward, requiring minimum disruption and site preparation.

Depending on the level of use, the only routine maintenance required is changing the arc-tubes every 9-12 months, a simple procedure that can be carried out by on-site personnel.

Once installed, the processing plant can be kept operational 24 hours a day, without the necessity of shutting down the system for routine sanitation and sterilisation.

Effective validation UV dose is computed by using three independent variables.

UV dose (fluence) = Lamp Intensity X Residence Time Distribution X Water Transmittance.

To ensure that the UV dose (lamp output) is effectively measured, each of the process variables needs to be measured. Many UV monitors have adjustable potentiometers to allow simple re-calibration.

This does not make the measurement relative, nor absolute. The monitor camera should be sealed, and calibrated against a traceable norm. An audit trail should be provided with each lamp and monitor to ensure that the lamp output, measured in W/sq.cm, of germicidal UV is measured, not guessed.

The same is true of the monitor response, measured in mW/sq.cm.

No in-field adjustment to the monitor camera should be possible, and normally these cameras should be returned to the manufacturer for re-calibration in accordance with the audit trail.

Each lamp should have a unique serial number, together with a certificate of spectral conformity.

It is standard practice to be able to measure, not infer, UV dose expressed in mJ/sq.cm with a dedicated monitor camera for each lamp.

Those who seek to apply Good Manufacturing Practice are able to data-log the UV dose received by the water, and the validation of the process is completed with an event stamp of any UV fault, showing date and time, and providing a permanent record of the recorded fault.

Recent research has shown that short wavelengths (below 200nm) are highly effective at breaking down organic molecules present in water, especially low molecular weight contaminants.

Experiments carried out by the company using a PFW (purified water) loop showed that below 200nm UV works in two ways: the first method is by direct photolysis, when energy from the UV actually breaks down chemical bonds within the organics; the second method is by the photolysis of water molecules, splitting them to create charged OH- radicals, which also attack the organics.

It was also discovered that increasing the power input to the UV system was actually found to be detrimental to effective treatment, as higher wattage per unit surface area increases the temperature of the quartz sleeve of the arc tube, shortening its life and inhibiting the shorter wavelength output.

Higher power input causes the internal pressure of the arc tube to rise as well, which also cuts off short wavelength UV.

Traditionally, MP lamps have been used for TOC reduction, but their output below 200nm is relatively low, limiting their effectiveness.

New lamps have therefore been developed with a sub-200nm output between two and three times that of any previous MP lamp.

They are also designed to operate at lower temperatures than conventional MP lamps, increasing lamp life and optimizing UV output below 200nm, where it has the greatest potential for reducing TOC.

The make-up water to many pharmaceutical plants is derived from municipal water supplies and, for over 50 years, free chlorine has been widely used for residual disinfection.

When chlorine is injected into waters with naturally occurring humic acids, fulvic acids and other naturally occurring materials, trihalomethane (THM) compounds are formed.

Since some THMs have been demonstrated to be cancer-causing to laboratory animals in relatively low concentrations, the US environmental protection agency has set their maximum contaminant level in primary drinking water to be 100 parts per billion (ppb) since 1979.

In addition, because of its properties, chlorine can damage delicate process equipment like reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and deionisation (DI) resin units and must be removed once it has performed its disinfection function.

To date, the two most commonly used methods of chlorine removal have been granular activated carbon (GAC) filters or the addition of neutralising chemicals such as sodium bisulphite and sodium metabisulphite.

Both of these methods have their advantages, but they also have a number of significant drawbacks.

GAC filters, because of their porous structure and nutrient-rich environment, can become a breeding ground for bacteria.

Dechlorination chemicals such as sodium bisulphite, which are usually injected just in front of RO membranes, can also act as incubators for bacteria, causing biofouling of the membranes.

In addition, these chemicals are hazardous to handle and there is a danger of over or under-dosing due to human error.

Medium pressure UV is now becoming increasingly popular as an effective alternative method of dechlorination.

It has none of the drawbacks of GAC or neutralising chemicals, while effectively reducing both free chlorine and combined chlorine compounds (chloramines) into easily removed by-products.

Between the wavelengths 180nm to 400nm UV light produces photochemical reactions which dissociate free chlorine to form hydrochloric acid.

The peak wavelengths for dissociation of free chlorine range from 180 nm to 200 nm, while the peak wavelengths for dissociation of combined chlorine (mono, di, and tri-chloramine) range from 245nm to 365nm.

Up to 5ppm of chloramines can be successfully destroyed in a single pass through a UV reactor and up to 15ppm of free chlorine can be removed.

The UV dosage required for dechlorination depends on total chlorine level, ratio of free vs combined chlorine, background level of organics and target reduction concentrations.

The usual dose for removal of free chlorine is 15 to 30 times higher than the normal disinfection dose of 30,000 microWatt-seconds per centimetre squared (µW-s/cm²).

Additional important benefits of using UV dechlorination are high levels of UV disinfection, total organic carbon (TOC) destruction and improved overall water quality at point-of-use.

UV is a key process tool that can ensure purified water loops operate at the highest levels of microbiological integrity.

Its benefits are many: installation is easy, requiring little disruption to the plant; maintenance is simple and can be carried out by on-site personnel; as a non-chemical method of treatment, there is no possibility of a detrimental effect on product stability and products are also free from unwanted residues, colors and odors.

Independent audit trails now allow UV dose measurements to be accurately measured, not inferred, with the intensity calibrated against an absolute standard.

In addition, data-logging ensures that compliance can be measured and demonstrated, not simply guessed.

It is also being successfully utilised for TOC reduction, dechlorination and dechloramination by some of the world's leading pharmaceutical manufacturers.

UV News September 6, 2006: Water utility plans for future /link deactivated/
By Donna Stehling/Sauk Prairie EaglE

The village of Prairie du Sac will sign a letter of intent to purchase a water purification system.
This is the ultraviolet light system brought in by Dr. Mark Borchardt of the Marshfield Clinic Foundation. He is conducting a unique groundwater resources research project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency.

Village officials agreed to state their intent to purchase the BX1800 now on Well 3 and to upgrade to B400XL for Well 2, a more powerful system because, following the recommendation of their engineer, the village will be deepening that well in five to seven years to provide increased capacity for an expanding community.

This letter of intent does not obligate the village to finalize the purchase.

If they elect to make the purchase, they will receive the units in November 2007 after the research project is completed at approximately half their original cost. Funds to purchase the equipment would be from the water utility.

The purpose of the study is to help assess the risk of gastro-intestinal illnesses in children drinking municipal water from a groundwater resource.

"Some diseases seem to have groundwater sources," Borchardt told village officials.

When Borchardt began recruiting municipalities for this project, there were two such research projects in the nation. Now there is only this Marshfield study.

"Florida dropped off for lack of people," Borchardt said.

Borchardt said 40 of the 50 Wisconsin communities he approached were interested in participating. He selected 14 municipalities; eight have the ultraviolet disinfectant reactor systems installed on their well heads and six are without.

When Borchardt took water samples prior to putting in the system in Prairie du Sac, he said tests indicated there were some pathogens in the water, something he said was not surprising because it is the same in other communities.

"After the UV lights were on, no viruses were detected," Borchardt said.

Since disinfection treatment began with the light system, both wells have tested negative for norovirus. Water testing will continue for another nine months. Families participating in the project keep weekly health logs and household water samples are also taken.

Borchardt said ultraviolet light passes through the water, killing many viruses and bacteria, but it will not affect chemicals in the water. In Prairie du Sac the disinfectant action can take place at 500 gallons a minute because the water is so clear.

"You'll get lots of dose for the money," Borchardt said. "There's great capacity for growth."

Borchardt said there are no regulatory requirements now to have this system, but he suspects this project could be leading the way.

Until now, municipalities chlorinate their water to control viruses and bacteria.

"I like the idea of UV rather than chlorinate," said public works director Pat Drone.

"Some viruses are resistant to chlorination," Borchardt said.

He said viruses get into the water supply by many means: breaks in pipes for construction, because of failure or by accident.

Ultraviolet light, he said is effective against chriptospiridium, salmonella, ecoli and norovirus.

The units last 15 to 20 years, based on units in use in Europe and Canada. In six to 10 years, valves need replacement. The lamps are warranted for 12,000 hours.

If the water is high in iron, the lamps need to be cleaned more frequently. Here the lamps are cleaned every two to three weeks.

"Some communities need no maintenance and some are higher maintenance," Borchardt said. ...

Full text: Water utility plans for future /link deactivated/

UV News August 22, 2006: Cresco city awaits installation of new ultraviolet waste water treatment device
NortheastIowafocus.com

During the final stage of waste water treatment, all bacteria is removed from the water using chlorine, which enables the water to leave the plant crystal clear - into a Silver Creek tributary northeast of Cresco.

"Chlorine kills the bacteria," Lloyd said. "E. Coli bacteria, which is natural in humans, gets killed off here. Then, you don't end up with it in the streams and contaminating everything else."

But, regardless of how effective the chlorine is in ridding water of bacteria, handling the chlorine is extremely dangerous, and Lloyd said that's the main reason the city is planning to install an ultraviolet waste water treatment device.

"Chlorine gas was the first chemical weapon used - in World War I," Lloyd said. "I know that in the community I was with, they used chlorine gas in their water treatment.

The other problem with chlorine, Lloyd said, is that it is difficult to measure how much chlorine is needed in the treatment process. The city manager said too little chlorine allows bacteria to escape the plant while too much chlorine pollutes the stream the plant feeds.

"The ultraviolet light prevents all that," he said. "The UV will neutralize everything that passes over it."

Lloyd said the Blazek Corporation of Lawler won the bid for the installation of the UV purification system. The $528,110 unit will be built into the facility's current treatment system in place of the chlorine-related portions of the plant. Freidhof said the UV unit will adjust itself based on the amount of bacteria passing through it.

"It's going to be fitted right in here, which is a good thing, because it will save us a lot of money," Freidhof said. "We won't have to build a whole new tank for it."

"It will also save us money, because of the upkeep of the chlorine unit," Lloyd said. "Chlorine is a regular cost. This will be more of an electrical issue."

Freidhof explained the decision to purchase the UV system came about after the city realized its need to update the waste water treatment facility's chlorine system. He said that when considering the cost of the much-needed updates, the city decided it "may as well go with the UV."

The bottom line, the two men agreed, is that with the addition of the UV treatment system, the water leaving the waste water facility will be cleaner than ever - if that's possible.

"This is where we set our minnow trap," Freidhof said with a smile, point at the mouth leading from the plant into the nearby stream. "If the minnows survive, the water is good, and they swim right up there."

"With the UV system, you're not adding anything to the stream that isn't natural," Lloyd said. "Chlorine isn't natural, and if you add too much chlorine to it, you're going to end up with dead fish. It's just so dangerous."

Lloyd said the city hopes the new UV system will be installed by the start of the new year.

UV News August 13, 2006: City meets first milestone of expanded water treatment plant /link deactivated/
Daily Democrat

Woodland's Water Pollution Control Facility has officially become a tertiary treatment plant.
This is the first milestone of a two-year expansion project at the WPCF, according to city officials...

Environmental regulations have changed and became more stringent through the years. As the laws changed, the city's type of treatment system has had to evolve to comply with State requirements.

"The current technology employed with the tertiary treatment system are state of the art filtration units that can trap particles down to ten microns in size," according to Gary Wegener, the city's Public Works Director. "While the WPCF meets all numeric limits in the discharge permit, the filtration units remove particulates from the waste stream which enhances the quality of the treated effluent which is then discharged to Tule canal. The previous secondary treatment system did not have any filtration units."

The WPCF disinfection system has also changed from chlorination to ultra violet lights. A major advantage of the UV system is that it eliminates the risk of an accidental discharge of the chlorine gas. Plant safety procedures are greatly simplified with the switch from chlorine gas disinfection, and employee safety is greatly enhanced.

The city workers at the treatment plant will also be safe from occupational exposure to chlorine, an acutely hazardous material, stated Wegener. "The UV system also eliminates hazardous by-products of chlorination, a carcinogen known as trihalomethane, from the discharge stream. UV also helps to destroy pathogens and viruses which filtration can't remove. The UV light penetrates the cell walls and damages the genetic composition of bacteria, viruses and pathogens, preventing them from reproducing."

After a month of testing the newly completed tertiary treatment plant effluent, the city notified the state that the first batch of tertiary treated wastewater was released into Tule canal on June 28.

The tertiary treatment is the initial phase of a $35 million project to expand, upgrade, and provide flood protection for the plant. Funding for the expansion related work is provided by development fees paid by developers at the time a building permit is issued (Wastewater development fees are $7,011 per single-family home)....

Full text: City meets first milestone of expanded water treatment plant /link deactivated/

UV News August 5, 2006: Using Rainwater At Home

You may not find the systems in many places, but there are people around Central Texas who say they're saving a lot of money on their water bills by collecting rain.

In Williamson County, they just instituted a burn ban, because of wildfire danger in these dry conditions. When you talk about needing some rain, for some people it has added value. ...

Two years ago, Larrison built his rainwater collection system, for about $2,000, in his new country home.

Rain is collected off a barn roof, goes into a couple of 2,500 gallon tanks and then gets filtered three times including an ultra-violet filter before going into his house.

"It's the UV light that will sterilize the water," Larrison said.

"It tastes a lot better than city water. PH is just right. It's very good for washing, cooking and cleaning," Larrison said. ...

UV News July 20, 2006: Siemens Unveils New Drinking Water UV Disinfection System
Warrendale

The Water Technologies division of Siemens' Industrial Solutions and Services (I&S) Group has introduced a higher capacity model to its line of Barrier M UV disinfection systems for potable water applications: the Barrier M Model 3800. This UV model can handle flow rates up to 7.3 mgd (5,063 gpm) at a transmittance level of 98%.

The Barrier M 3800 UV system provides a cost-effective, reliable and operator-friendly solution to medium- and large-sized community drinking water systems. Adding the Barrier M UV system to other disinfection processes provides a multi-barrier approach, and ensures complete inactivation of all waterborne pathogens. The Model 3800's compact reaction chamber enables easy, flexible installation, especially in retrofit situations where space is limited.

DVGW-certified to provide a minimum Reduction Equivalent Dose of 40mJ/cm², the 3800 model will be granted a 3-log inactivation credit for Cryptosporidium and Giardia by the EPA's UV Disinfection Guidance Manual.

The Barrier M Model 3800 UV disinfection system is part of the Wallace & Tiernan product line from Siemens Water Technologies. Barrier is a registered trademark of Siemens, its subsidiaries and/or its affiliates.

UV News July 13, 2006: Ultraviolet for Sperryville Plant
by Monty Tayloe, Rappahannock News (Times Community Newspapers)

The Rappahannock County Water and Sewer Authority received a donation from Prince William County of two ultraviolet light units that should save the county thousands of dollars in costs at the Sperryville Water Treatment Plant.

The WSA learned of the donation at their July 6 meeting, which they also began consideration of their 2007-2007 operating budget. The budget includes a 5% raise for all three Water and Sewer employees, which is consistent with other county employees. This was also the first meeting for new member Ruth Kiger, who was appointed last month by Piedmont Supervisor Tom Taylor.

Once installed, the UV units should kill harmful bacteria in the water by radiating UV light. Currently the county uses chlorine for the same purpose. However, water treated with chlorine must then be treated with a chemical called Dechlor, which removes the chlorine from the outflowing water. Chlorine can ultimately pollute water sources and kill fish. Once installed, the UV units will eliminate the need for either chemical and the manpower required to test chlorine levels. However, UV units still require their own form of monitoring, to insure that they are performing properly.

"We'll save six to nine thousand dollars a year on chemicals and manpower," said Daniel Keyser, Treasurer of the Water and Sewer Authority.

The UV units came Rappahannock County's way after Prince William County upgraded the size of their plant. The new plant requires larger UV fixtures, so Prince William's loss became Rappahannock's gain. The units will require some repairs, but will ultimately cost the county only a couple thousand dollars in installation fees. New, the purifying fixtures cost around ten thousand dollars plus installation.

UV News July 5, 2006: Calgon Carbon loses UV patent round in court
PITTSBURGH (WaterTech Online)

Calgon Carbon Corp. said this week that a federal court has declared invalid the company's patent on the use of ultraviolet (UV) light to prevent Cryptosporidium contamination of drinking water.

In a July 3 press release, Calgon Carbon said it would "vigorously" appeal the ruling, which was made on a motion for summary judgment before the US District Court for the District of New Jersey.

A Canadian appeals court recently had ruled in favor of the company's UV patent in that nation by overruling a lower court, but the company says there is no assurance that a similar result will occur in the appeal of the US case.

Of the US case, John Stanik, president and CEO of Calgon Carbon, was quoted in the press release as saying, "We are, of course, disappointed with the ruling, but recognize that patent issues are complex and are often resolved in the higher courts."

A recent article in the Pittsburgh Business Times said that Calgon Carbon holds patents in 26 countries on the use of UV for drinking water disinfection, noting that the New Jersey case involves three companies disputing Calgon Carbon's patent, among them Wedeco, a division of ITT Industries, Inc.

A Calgon Carbon spokeswoman was quoted by the Pittsburgh Business Times as saying that Calgon Carbon will continue to sell UV technology, but the New Jersey decision for now prevents the company from charging others a licensing fee for its use.

Calgon Carbon, based in Pittsburgh, says on its Web site that the patented UV technology, developed in 1996, is the basis of its Sentinel® UV Disinfection System, which the company calls "a landmark technology for the control of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and waterborne, pathogenic bacteria and viruses."

UV News June 23, 2006: UV irradiation in the home improves kids' asthma /link deactivated/
NEW YORK (Reuters Health)

The use of centrally installed ultraviolet (UV) irradiation units in the homes of asthmatic children who are sensitized to mold can improve their symptoms, according to a new report.

The idea is that UV light kills off circulating microbial agents that can trigger asthma.

The study is one of only a few to look at the health benefits of UV air disinfection systems, Dr. Jonathan A. Bernstein, from the University of Cincinnati in Ohio, and colleagues note in the May issue of the Journal of Asthma. Also, many of the previous studies have focused on the use of these systems in an office environment, not at home.

In a 28-week 'crossover' trial, the researchers assessed respiratory symptoms in 19 children with asthma first while UV irradiation units were running in the home central ventilation system and then when dummy units were installed, or vice versa.

UV irradiation was delivered by the CREON2000 Photonic Air Disinfection system, which can operate continuously due to the presence of a pre-filter system that prevents dust from accumulating on the UV lamps.

Compared with the placebo situation, the use of the UV irradiation system was associated with a significant improvement in the children's peak expiratory flow rate, the report indicates.

In addition, the system seemed to improve asthma symptoms and reduce asthma medication usage by 51 percent, compared to 13 percent with placebo.

A larger study "to validate the clinical health effects of UV irradiation as a primary indoor environmental intervention for allergic asthma" is necessary to confirm the present findings, the researchers conclude.
SOURCE: Journal of Asthma, May 2006.

UV News May 30, 2006: Veolia Water to design UV wastewater plant
Brockton, MA

Veolia Water North America has signed an agreement to design, build and operate a New York wastewater treatment plant, according to a May 30 Business Wire press release.

The plant will be located in Hillburn, NY, and will service residents of western Ramapo, including the villages of Sloatsburg and Hillburn, the release said.

The new facility will feature an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system that will produce effluent that exceeds all environmental wastewater quality standards issued by the federal and New York governments; the facility will also be completely enclosed for odor control, the release said.

According to the release, the $45 million project will begin immediately and construction is expected to last approximately two years.

UV News May 23, 2006: UV method rids leafy vegetables of pathogens
foodproductiondaily-usa.com NEWS

A more effective way of cleaning vegetables such as leafy greens can dramatically reduce the risk of contamination, according to a Canadian research study.

The new way of cleaning produce will not only make food safer to consume, but it should also extend the shelf life of products because vegetables are often spoiled by microbial action.

At least 19 food-borne illness outbreaks have been linked to leafy greens since 1995, resulting in two deaths and 425 people becoming seriously ill, according to figures from the US Food and Drug Administration.

Problems with contaminated vegetables getting to the market can occur when pathogens actually get into the internal tissue of such greens as lettuce, said Keith Warriner, a professor at the University of Guelph's department of food science.

When lettuce is harvested for bagged salads it is normally kept cool in containers of water and then washed again at the processing plant, he said. If the water is contaminated, which it sometimes is, bacteria will be passed onto the lettuce.

“You can wash it for as long as you like, but you're not going to remove all the pathogens because they can hide in cut edges and the pores of the lettuce leaves," he said.

To find a way to eliminate pathogens in vegetables, Warriner, along with researcher Christina Hajdok, decided to apply the same method used to decontaminate food cartons.

Like fresh produce, the surface of carton packaging material is full of crevices that can provide protective sites for microbes.

The method involves sterilizing milk, juice and soup cartons with a spray of hydrogen peroxide at the same time they are illuminated with UV light.

The UV light converts the hydrogen peroxide into antimicrobial free radicals that penetrate into the packaging material to inactivate microbes.

To test the method on produce, Warriner artificially contaminated tomatoes, cauliflower, iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, Spanish onions and broccoli with Salmonella. After “cleaning” the vegetables using the hydrogen peroxide and UV method, he managed to achieve almost complete inactivation of the pathogen.

“The good thing about hydrogen peroxide and UV is that they make free radicals that can penetrate right into the subsurface of vegetables so we can ensure the pathogens in the lettuce leaf can be inactivated, something that washing cannot do,” said Warriner.

Consumers would not actually be consuming any hydrogen peroxide by eating vegetables that have been cleaned by the method, said Warriner.

Plants contain enzymes called catalase that degrade hydrogen peroxide into water. The free radicals are so short-lived that within seconds they do their job and are converted to water as the by product.

Warriner said he has determined the optimal levels of hydrogen peroxide and exposure time. Next, he will test his decontamination method on produce contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and other viruses to show the true potential of the system.

In October last year, 23 people in three states became sick from eating lettuce contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. Most people aren't aware that, next to ground beef, fresh produce is the most common culprit in food-borne illness, Warriner said.

At least 19 food-borne illness outbreaks have been linked to leafy greens since 1995, resulting in two deaths and 425 people becoming seriously ill, according to the US Food and Drug Administration.

UV News April 19, 2006: First New Jersey public UV water treatment facility
WaterTech Online PHILLIPSBURG, NJ

The state's first public water treatment facility using ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection technology is up and running in Lopatcong Township, serving 10,600 Aqua New Jersey Inc. customers in four townships, according to a March 24 Aqua America press release.

The $2.6 million treatment facility is capable of treating 10.5 million gallons per day, using the UV treatment as an added level of disinfection in the chlorination process, the release said.

Aqua America Chairman and CEO Nicholas DeBenedictis was quoted in the press release as saying, "We are not only enhancing water quality without the need for additional chemicals, but the process produces no waste materials that require disposal." ...

UV News April 10, 2006: Fencl Reappointed ASHRAE’s Distinguished Lecturer On UVC
PR Web Newswire

Forrest Fencl of UV Resources, has received an additional two year appointment as one of a handful of ASHRAE members selected as Distinguished Lecturers.

ASHRAE's Distinguished Lecturers Program began in Society year 1996-97. The purpose of the program is to provide ASHRAE chapters with lecturers equipped to speak on relevant subjects of interest to its members and guests. The program provides ASHRAE chapters, student branches, neighboring universities and colleges, and other organizations the opportunity to collaborate, and hear outstanding speakers on the leading edge of technology.

Mr. Fencl’s 2005 Distinguished Lecture speaking engagements include coast-to-coast travels in the US, as well as an ASHRAE sponsored trip to Asia where he lectured to Chapters in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Thailand.

Mr. Fencl’s lectures teach UVC for: “Improved System Capacity, Maintenance and IAQ”, “Controlling Circulating Infectious Agents” and “Bio/Chem-Oriented Terrorism.

UV News April 3, 2006: UV disinfection in the beverage industry
Hanovia PR /Processingtalk /

Microbial growth in beverages due to contaminated water supplies or sugar syrups can cause discoloration, off flavors and shortened shelf-life: microbial disinfection is available using UV

Microbial growth in beverages due to contaminated water supplies or sugar syrups can cause discoloration, off flavors and shortened shelf-life. The threat of contamination is further increased as manufacturers respond to consumer demands for less chemical additives and preservatives. Effective microbial disinfection of the whole manufacturing process is therefore essential. A non-chemical method of disinfection which is gaining increasing acceptance is ultraviolet (UV) disinfection.

Hanovia UV systems kill all known spoilage micro-organisms, including bacteria, viruses, yeasts and molds (and their spores).

UV is a low maintenance, environmentally friendly technology which eliminates the need for chemical treatment while ensuring high levels of disinfection. UV disinfection has many advantages over alternative methods. Unlike chemical treatment, UV does not introduce toxins or residues into process water and does not alter the chemical composition, taste, odor or pH of the fluid being disinfected. This feature is especially important in the beverage industry where the chemical dosing of incoming process water can cause off-flavors and alter the chemical properties of the product.

Hanovia UV systems can be used for primary water or sugar syrup disinfection or as a back-up for other purification methods such as carbon filtration, reverse osmosis or pasteurization. As UV has no residual effect, the best position for a treatment system is immediately prior to the point of use. This ensures incoming microbiological contaminants are destroyed and there is a minimal chance of post-treatment contamination.

All Hanovia UV disinfection systems are easy to install, with minimum disruption to the plant. They need very little maintenance, the only requirement being replacement of the UV lamps every 12 months, depending on use. This is a simple operation that takes only a few minutes and can be carried out by general maintenance staff.

UV News March 24, 2006: Siemens UV disinfection systems receive DVGW certification
Erlangen /WebWire/

Disinfection systems of the UV Wave and UV Astron/Barrier M series have been issued with the certificate for “UV systems for disinfection of water supply” by DVGW (Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und Wasserfaches e.V. = German association for gas and water). This makes Wallace & Tiernan, a subsidiary of the Siemens Industrial Solutions and Services Group (I&S), the first company in the world to offer certified UV systems with low-pressure as well as with medium-pressure lamps.

The DVGW certification body tests and certifies gas and water products on the basis of DVGW standards as well as nationally and internationally recognized directives, standards and certification programs. The technical standards of the DVGW form the basis for safety and reliability in the German gas and water supply industry and are also taken into account by other European countries.

Wallace & Tiernan GmbH (of Günzburg, Germany), a company belonging to the Water Technologies Division of the Siemens Industrial Solutions and Services Group, supplies system-based solutions for water treatment and purification. These include chlorine or chlorine dioxide metering systems, electrolysis equipment as well as UV systems for disinfection, phosphate elimination devices, lime slaking equipment, preparation systems for polyelectrolyte solutions, dry-goods metering devices for the wastewater area and also measuring and control devices for monitoring and metering...

UV News March 23, 2006: UV system to disinfect water for man-made river
CHARLOTTE, NC /WaterTechONLINE/

What its creators are calling the first man-made whitewater river in the world designed with a recirculating water supply will have its water disinfected by a closed-chamber, medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) system...

The US National Whitewater Center in Charlotte, scheduled to open in May, will use UV equipment to treat city water and well water that it will then recirculate for use by kayakers; it will serve as the training ground for the US Olympic kayak team, the press release said.

The park water will first be pumped through a 130-micron disc filter to remove suspended solids and will then flow through the UV system to kill harmful bacteria and other organisms; the system is rated to treat flows of 8,000 to 9,000 gallons per minute...

UV News March 15, 2006: Delphos council approves water plant contract /link deactivated/
By DAVID TRINKO,  /Lima News/

The Delphos City Council unanimously approved signing a contract with a contractor to build a state-of-the-art water system.

The council unanimously approved the mayor and/or the safety service director to enter into a $12.48 million contract with Peterson Construction Co. for the new water treatment plant. Council President Bob Ulm introduced an amended section to the ordinance, installing granular activated carbon, ultraviolet treatment and soda ash treatment to treat the water in the aboveground system.

“Perhaps the most important thing is it not only meets but exceeds the EPA requirements, and I believe we’ll be in compliance for years to come,” Ulm said. “We’re incorporating some very, very state-of-the-art technologies here to give people the best quality water.”

Ulm commended the council for its unanimous voice on the water project, a hot topic of conversation in the city since 1964. He said he hoped the system could be finished by fall 2007. Mayor Jerry Neumeier said he wouldn’t use his veto authority on the issue and supported the measure for the city’s future. He expressed his pride in being what he believed was the first city in Ohio to use all granular activated carbon, ultraviolet treatment and soda ash treatment together to treat its water.

“I know with a project in excess of $12 million, there’s a lot of apprehension,” he said. “This is a step forward for Delphos, though. We’ll be getting our residents the best possible water, and this extra capacity should help us get economic development in the right direction too. We’ll be proud of the quality water we’re providing.”

UV News March 9, 2006: ITT Awarded UV Water Disinfection Contract by U.K. Utility
WHITE PLAINS, N.Y.,  /PR Newswire/

ITT Industries, Inc. (NYSE: ITT), a leading provider of water treatment technology, today announced that it has been awarded a sole source Ultraviolet (UV) Water Framework contract by United Utilities Plc. of the United Kingdom. This is the first major framework contact award for UV potable water disinfection by a U.K. utility.

The contract calls for the design, supply, installation, testing, commission and maintenance of ITT's WEDECO Enclosed Ultraviolet Reactor Systems for potable water disinfection. The United Utilities contract covers a period of two years with an option to extend. The contract award was based on ITT WEDECO designing and supplying seven water treatment plants throughout Northwest England. Each UV treatment system is designed to fit local needs, but initial designs may treat flows up to 72 million liters of water per day. Over the contract period, the installed base may be valued in excess of $2.5 million.

"As a leader in water treatment, ITT is pleased to bring our focus on life-cycle costs, maintenance, technical support, and global reach to help United Utilities meet their customers' need for clean water," said Andre
Dhawan, president of ITT's WEDECO business. "We hope to build on this award and develop further our strong relationship with United Utilities to include their other facilities as they expand worldwide."

ITT Industries, Inc. supplies advanced technology products and services in key markets including: fluid and water management including water treatment; defense communication, opto-electronics, information technology and services; electronic interconnects and switches; and other specialty products. Headquartered in White Plains, NY, the company generated $7.4 billion in 2005 sales. In addition to the New York Stock Exchange, ITT Industries stock is traded on the Pacific, Paris, London and Frankfurt exchanges.

UV News February 7, 2006: UV rays might affect how rust spores spread, says expert
By Beth Forbes, Purdue University

Purdue University soybean expert Greg Shaner offers some of the latest thoughts on Asian soybean rust heading into the 2006 planting season. Shaner and other Purdue researchers and Extension specialists are still making plans for another summer of stepped-up vigilance. They also have some new hypotheses about the fungal disease that might surprise you.

"Last year's lessons indicate that soybean rust may not spread that rapidly," said Greg Shaner, a professor of botany and plant pathology. "We also know that just because the spores are present, doesn't necessarily mean you'll get soybean rust. Last year, there was no direct connection between when you find spores and when you find rust." ...

"We think that ultraviolet light may have affected the viability of the spores," Shaner said.

That hypothesis is tied to the fact that spores of the soybean rust fungus are mainly produced on the underside of leaves where they are protected from direct sunlight. Soybean rust spores carried on the wind and in clouds are exposed to large amounts of ultraviolet light that may make them impotent, according to Shaner, who said further research will have to be done to test this theory.

...

Despite the lack of soybean rust in Indiana, diseases like frogeye leaf spot and sudden death syndrome did bring down yields in some areas.

UV News January 18, 2006: District Ok's UV chamber; MAWC change coincided with problem
By Zandy Dudiak, Murrysville Star

People who use the Franklin Regional Middle School pool can breathe - and see - easier now that the school board has awarded a contract for an ultraviolet disinfection chamber to combat a chloramine problem.

In addition to the $34,400 to be paid to to B&R Pools of Pittsburgh, the district will have to spend $650 for metal fencing to surround the unit and $400 for an electrical conduit and circuit breaker box.

Approved Monday night, the contract is being reviewed by solicitor Jack Cambest before the district proceeds with the purchase. After the purchase is completed, it will take five weeks for the equipment to be in place.

Chloramines, which are particles of organic and chlorine material, have caused swimmers at the pool to suffer skin, eye and respiratory infections this fall. Chloramines are released into the air with pool use.

The ultraviolet chamber kills organic materials in the water, reducing the amount of chloramines. The system also will kill bacteria, viruses and molds.

UV News January 12, 2006: City to take part in ultraviolet water study
 Rice Lake Online

Rice Lake and Cameron are among 14 Wisconsin communities selected for a study of the effects of ultraviolet light on drinking water. The study, conducted by Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, is funded through a federal Environmental Protection Agency grant.

In Rice Lake, the study is expected to begin in March.

Rice Lake Utilities general manager Scott Reimer emphasized that there is no current problem with the Rice Lake water system. He said the study was approved in December by the Utilities Commission.

Under the study, ultraviolet lights will be installed at every city well in seven communities. The other seven communities will serve as a control group.

Researchers say the lights, which are similar to very strong sunlight, will provide additional purification by killing any germs if they are present in the water. The experiment will have no effect on the taste or smell of the water.

Families with children aged 6 months to 13 years in each community will be contacted by the researchers and asked to sign up for the study. That will be about 70 families in Cameron.

Signed-up families will then record their children’s illnesses for four 3-month periods. Researchers say health information will be kept confidential. Researchers will draw about 200 gallons of water from some study households to test for germs.

Selected families will receive $100 if all study procedures are completed.

After the second 3-month period, the ultraviolet lights will be moved to the other communities.

The study is headed up by Dr. Mark Borchardt of the Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation. An earlier story in the Milwaukee Journal reported that in 2003, in a study funded by the state Department of Natural Resources, Borchardt tested 50 wells at four different times throughout Wisconsin and found that four of the wells contained viral contamination, including hepatitis.

Cameron’s Village Board voted to be a part of the study on Monday after Borchardt explained the study to the board.

Borchardt told the village board that the study’s purpose is to determine whether any of four types of viruses are in a community’s well or water system and whether those viruses have any impact on the health of people consuming that water.

He said the viruses have been associated with illnesses ranging from flu-like illnesses through more serious conditions such as cancer and heart disease.

 

 

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