UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet and
IUVA website. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their
accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.
UV Articles 2006
November 27, 2006: UV
rays improve Kawerau's water
Kawerau residents will have access to safer drinking water by the middle of
A new ultraviolet treatment plant is to be installed in the
district's water supply system in March.
Council spokesperson Tom McDowall says the plant works by having the water
flow past an ultraviolent light.
He says that light kills all the bugs in the water before it is distributed
to the community.
The treatment was chosen in response to the community's opposition to the
permanent use of chlorine as a disinfecting agent in the water supply.
November 24, 2006:
Emerging trends in UV disinfection
News Release from: Aquionics
Edited by the Processingtalk Editorial Team on 24 November 2006
The UV disinfection industry has experienced tremendous growth over the last
20 years: UV is no longer 'emerging' technology, but accepted technology to
be used routinely to safeguard human health.
The UV disinfection industry has experienced tremendous growth
over the last 20 years. The development of new UV technologies over
this period is a perfect example of an industry investing to meet market
demand - in this case a demand for an effective, low cost, and
environmentally friendly disinfection technology. The acceptance of UV
disinfection at water plants treating in excess of one billion gallons
daily is proof that UV is no longer an 'emerging' technology, but
rather an accepted technology to be used routinely by engineers to safeguard
The UV industry continues to change, grow and invent new products and
applications. This article briefly explores some of the emerging trends.
Virtually all of the leading innovative, entrepreneurial UV companies
have now been acquired by major, multi-product, financially mature
industrial groups such as Danaher, Halma, Siemens, ITT and Suez.
This has induced market stability and, whilst this will ensure highly
professional product offerings and delivery, it also means that many of
these newly acquired companies must either become or remain profitable to
justify the investment made in them.
The regulatory acceptance of UV for treating drinking water
(particularly in the USA), and regulatory standards for validating new UV
reactor designs, all signal a major shift in the acceptance of the
technology into the mainstream.
The UV industry has experienced double digit sales growth over the
last 20 years, and combined annual sales of UV products will soon be
in excess of US$500M.
The formation of the International Ultraviolet Association (IUVA) in
1999 provides a forum for information dissemination and self-regulation, and
the imminent USEPA UV Disinfection Guidance Manual to assist
engineers and owners in the design, operation and maintenance of UV systems
will further standardise the use of UV.
The use of computational fluid dynamics modeling has vastly improved the
manufacturers ability to predict with confidence the level of treatment
required for unique waters using their proprietary equipment.
System sizing is no longer a black art, as the selected manufacturer can
work with the design engineer to accurately predict treatment levels under
varying conditions of water quality and flow.
All UV equipment manufacturers will soon use this tool to optimise
the dose delivery of their reactors and minimise energy costs.
As manufacturers develop and improve optimised reactors, they will then
validate the designs using USEPA or European validation protocols. These
optimised reactors will be rolled out over the next several years.
Conventional UV lamp technology will also improve.
Medium pressure lamps will continue to see gains in energy efficiency, lamp
life and power density, with Quartz coating techniques extending lamp life
to well over 12,000 hours.
This approach will remain favoured for compact, small footprint
installations, particularly retrofit, or where automated wiping is required.
Low pressure, high output lamps will also have increasing power, perhaps
approaching 1kW, which will decrease the footprint and maintenance
requirements for systems using this technology.
Lamp disposal will emerge as a significant issue for low pressure UV
installations which use many thousands of low pressure lamps.
New UV light sources such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) claim to be
a technology of the future.
The advantages of LEDs are their ability to concentrate virtually all of the
electrical power into a very narrow bandwidth of 260 nm to 262 nm, their
vastly superior power efficiencies, a very long lamp life (reported to be
greater than 100,000 hours) and, because of their point-source nature, they
are not restricted to conventional cylindrical designs.
Likely drawbacks of this promising technology will be in the power supply
drives for the lamps, which remain largely in the concept phase.
Other lamp types such as excimer lamps show some advantages, such as being
mercury free and having no warm-up time, but are currently limited by low
power efficiency and high ballast costs.
The excimers are often also more toxic than the elements they propose to
Another interesting technology involves the use of microwaves to energize a
UV lamp without the use of electrodes.
Developers claim to have produced power outputs of up to 1000 W with similar
UV outputs to low pressure lamps, which would dramatically improve
the footprint and maintenance of low pressure lamp-based systems. The
absence of electrodes also greatly increases the lamp life.
This development could well see microwave power supply emerge as the
consumable, with the lamp remaining in situ for 4-5 years. The long term
effects of using microwaves on sleeve wipers remains unknown.
UV sensor technology has also greatly improved over the last decade,
with stable, reliable and germicidally accurate sensors now available and a
well regulated calibration protocol now in place.
In addition, manufacturers have improved the proprietary control systems for
taking information from the sensors, flowmeters and other monitoring devices
and using this information to optimise the performance of their equipment.
They can also interface with the operator at a plant control centre.
The D10 values of more and more micro-organisms is now known, with the list
growing all the time.
Most notably, research has confirmed the very low doses required to
disinfect Cryptosporidium and Giardia, while also finding several viruses
that have an unusually high D10.
As new applications for UV are found, new microbes will be added to
existing D10 tables.
A major concern to the UV industry is the issue of reactivation - the
apparent ability of some micro-organisms to repair the damage done to their
DNA by UV, reactivating their ability to infect.
DNA repair can occur in a closed (dark) system, but is more likely in open
systems under direct sunlight (photo-reactivation).
The dose level and lamp type seem to affect the degree of reactivation, with
low pressure (single wavelength) UV lamps appearing to be more
susceptible to photo-reactivation than medium pressure (multi-wavelength)
A much larger research effort into the area of photo-reactivation is
required and will most likely be forthcoming over the next 5 years.
A significant amount of research has also targeted the question of UV
disinfection by-products, specifically the most common water
constituents such as chlorine, bromide, nitrate, ozone, NOM, and iron.
At normal UV disinfection doses no significant disinfection
by-products have been shown to form.
Research continues with more exotic water constituents.
By far the greatest potential market for UV disinfection is drinking
UV is now accepted as an 'Available Technology' to deactivate
Cryptosporidium and Giardia in surface water and other vulnerable sources.
From 1997 to the present, growth in this market has been generally slow due
to several factors, including the uncertainty of sensitivity of
Cryptosporidium and Giardia to UV; the lack of a regulatory framework
for UV disinfection; the lack of a guidance manual; the lack of case
histories and engineering knowledge in the application of UV in drinking
water plants; the general conservatism of the water industry; and,
finally, the uncertainty of the outcome of several court cases considering a
royalty on the use of UV for Cryptosporidium and Giardia destruction.
All of these issues have now either been resolved or resolutions are
imminent, paving the way for rapid growth in this market.
Another UV application with much potential is wastewater re-use for
irrigation and grey water applications.
Re-use is already common in the US southwest and other areas of acute fresh
water shortages such as Florida, Mexico, the Middle East and North Africa.
UV systems for this market are validated to much higher doses than
drinking water systems according to protocols established by the National
Water Research Institute (NWRI).
Drinking water type product validation, with the accompanying rigour, will
emerge as the dominant method of assessing suitability for these critical
The ability to prevent photo repair will also emerge as key.
Another new market for UV is disinfecting water for aquifer storage
This involves pumping highly treated wastewater into aquifers to recharge
drinking water supplies.
California, Texas and Florida are three states considering this approach.
Finally, UV for advanced oxidation involves the use of UV, either by
itself or in combination with the hydroxyl radical, to break down
contaminants in water.
This technology has already been successfully used for groundwater
remediation, industrial wastewater treatment and drinking water treatment.
Most notably, several large advanced oxidation projects have involved the
use of advanced oxidation for NDMA, MTBE, pesticides, taste and odour
compounds, and chlorinated solvents.
The UV industry has matured considerably over the last decade and is
now highly regulated and dominated by major water companies.
Conventional UV technologies have been field tested and now have
considerable track records in a wide range of applications.
Uncertainties surrounding regulations, royalties, technology and engineering
have decreased and acceptance of UV is expected to grow rapidly over
the next 20 years.
Conventional UV designs have been greatly aided by CFD, which will be
used as a routine sizing tool for future designs.
Incremental improvements in conventional lamps, sensors and controls will
also continue over the next decade.
New technologies such as LED lamps and microwave lamps hold promise of
further improvements in electrical efficiency, footprint and cost.
The stage is now set for dramatic growth in the drinking water market,
especially if new technologies can bring increased efficiencies and lower
Other applications, such as wastewater reuse and aquifer storage and
recovery are smaller, and will grow at slower rates, but are still
attractive applications for UV.
The use of UV for advanced oxidation is still in its infancy and is
highly dependent on energy costs.
These markets will grow dramatically if newer, more energy efficient
technologies are available.
This review of UV disinfection trends was supplied by Jon McClean,
President of Aquionics.
November 21, 2006: UV
system ensures highest standards in water treatment
Lauren Vopni, Hanna Herald
Henry Kroeger Regional Water Services in Hanna began the installation of
their new Ultra Violet water treatment system last week.
The new UV disinfection system will allow the plant to reduce the
amount of chlorine used to disinfect the water supply as well as providing a
multi barrier system to ensure safe and good quality drinking water.
"This is another approach to a multi barrier water treatment system," said
Operations Manager Garth Carl. "It will ensure that our water remains safe."
A UV system is not new technology. It was first used in the
wastewater industry as a result of concerns about the amount of chlorine
being discharged into the environment during treatment. What was discovered
is that parasites that can cause intestinal illnesses, such as
Cryptosporidium and Giardiasis, would be unable to reproduce after being
exposed to the UV light, thus preventing sickness from occurring.
The UV system works by passing water through a series of medium
pressure lamps that contain ultra violet bulbs. The plant is
installing two UV systems, made by Trojan Technologies, a Canadian
company based out of London, Ontario. One unit will operate when water is
being treated and the second will act as back up.
The new system will be fully operational on Nov. 28 and will cost Henry
Kroeger Regional Water Services roughly $500,000. The installation of this
system has been in the works since 2003 and is one of many capital projects
Henry Kroeger Regional Water Services has planned. They hope to expand their
treated water storage facilities and install an on site electrical power
generator within the next seven years.
Henry Kroeger Regional Water Services currently serves the community of
Hanna as well as Delia and Craigmyle. The plant was built in 1983 and
originally drew its raw water supply from a combination of the CN Reservoir,
the Helmer Dam and Fox Lake. Carl recalls that when he began in 1984 his
chemical budget was over $100,000 annually. When they began drawing their
water supply from their current source, Red Deer River, the budget dropped
to $20,000, noting that rivers are among the best places to draw a water
The water volume the plant is required to treat changes seasonally. In the
winter the plant will treat roughly 1,800 cubic meters of water per day and
more then doubles to 4,600 cubic meters during the summer months.
SURFERS TO OPPOSE PLANS TO TURN OFF THE U.V.
Campaigners from Surfers Against Sewage (SAS) will be opposing Northumbrian
Water’s plans to turn off UV light disinfection outside the bathing
season at some sewage treatment works in the North East.
The plans currently lodged with the Environment Agency (EA) have caused
concern in the local surfing community, as many surf breaks will see a
reduction in water quality if the UV disinfection process is turned
off from September to May. Reducing the level of sewage treatment in this
way WILL increase the risk of contracting a waterborne disease for
recreational water users such as surfers.
Surfing is hugely popular in the North East, and like much of the UK,
receives the best surfing conditions outside of the bathing season, the very
time Northumbrian Water wish to turn off the higher level of treatment. The
affected stretch of coast contains a large number of popular surf breaks,
from Hartley reef in the North to Saltburn in the South – it is also home to
a significant number of surf related business, university surf clubs, surf
schools and a national surf contest site.
Whilst SAS are hugely concerned about the world’s energy consumption and its
impact on climate change, turning off a vital sewage treatment process to
conserve energy could have devastating effects on not just the marine
environment but also the health of those using it for recreation. Such a
move would be a significant step backwards in protecting our marine
environment from pollution and SAS believe there are other energy saving
steps the company should be making first and foremost.
For instance treating water to a potable level and supplying it to customers
is also an energy intensive process. Treated water that escapes through
leaks is a huge waste of energy. If Northumbrian Water fixed all of its
leaks, it could reduce its CO2 emissions by up to an estimated 23,000 tonnes.
That’s a CO2 saving ten times greater than the CO2 emissions they’d save by
turning off UV for the winter! (Ref 1)
The water company could also be doing more to create its own renewable
energy from the sewage treatment process. For example, Severn Trent Water
should soon be producing approximately 50% of their sewage works energy
requirements by using gas produced from the sewage treatment digestion
SAS believe that all water companies can become more energy efficient whilst
maintaining the high water quality the UK requires to protect our coastline
and those using it for recreation.
Andy Cummins, SAS Campaigns Director says: “It’s easy to turn off a switch
for 7 months of the year in a sewage treatment works when you can’t see the
impact it will have on the beach for the thousands of recreational water
users using this stretch of coastline week in, week out. SAS are concerned
that by turning off the UV treatment, Northumbrian Water will be able
to reduce their obligations and running costs under the guise of being
environmentally responsible and the only people to benefit will be the
shareholders through increased profits.
This would be a huge step backwards for the environment, the surfers and the
local businesses who have all helped pay for UV disinfection to be
added to the treatment works through past water bills and since benefited
from a cleaner, safer coastline all year round. SAS will be making an
official objection as part of the Environment Agency’s consultation process
which closes on the 17th November”.
UV Disinfection in the Pharmaceutical Industry
News Release from: Berson UV-techniek,
Edited by the Processingtalk Editorial Team
The quality standards required for purified water in the production of
pharmaceuticals have never been stricter, with manufacturers having to
conform to an ever increasing number of international standards. In this
article Sjors van Gaalen, Managing Director of Berson UV-techniek,
introduces a number of interesting new developments in UV technology
for disinfection and dechlorination, relevant to this problem.
Ultraviolet (UV) technology was originally used to ensure the adequate
disinfection of municipal town mains water.
Since its introduction over 40 years ago, it is now applied globally for
disinfection, TOC (total organic carbon) reduction, destruction of ozone and
chloramines plus de-chlorination of process water in many different
industries, including pharmaceutical manufacturing.
Water is the largest volume material used within pharmaceutical processes
and, driven by more stringent standards, increasingly sophisticated process
barriers and disinfection techniques have been adopted.
The United States Pharmacopoeia 24th edition (USP 24) defines the quality
standard to which water used in this pharmaceutical manufacturing needs to
Several of the process stages in pharmaceutical production can themselves
also cause microbial contamination and UV can therefore be used as an
effective barrier to ensure that discrete process stages do not compromise
Typical installations include UV for disinfection after carbon
filters or before RO and UV for disinfection and TOC reduction in the
A correctly sized UV disinfection system installed downstream of the
carbon beds or directly upstream of the RO unit will eliminate at least
99.9% of bacteria present in the inlet water.
UV disinfection systems are generally split into two distinct types:
low pressure (LP) and medium pressure (MP).
LP systems either have a single UV output at 254nm, or a combination
of outputs at 185nm and 254nm, whereas MP systems have a very broad UV
output between 240-310nm.
In essence, UV works by fusing adenine and thiamine molecules within
a micro-organism DNA, rendering it unable to replicate. The micro-organisms
are thus destroyed without the use of chemicals.
Whilst 254nm is an effective wavelength for disinfection, it is generally
accepted that DNA absorbs UV most effectively at 265nm, a wavelength
that MP lamps produce in abundance.
Understanding these differences is fundamental to the design of efficient
and effective UV disinfection equipment.
Generally speaking, LP systems are best used on small, intermittent flow
applications with MP technology lending itself to higher flow rates.
For LP systems to be effective at destroying DNA, a large number of UV
lamps (the mercury-filled tubes that actually produce the UV) are
required. This has obvious cost and maintenance implications for the
operator. All UV lamps have set lifespans and need replacing after a
certain number of hours (normally several thousand).
The more lamps there are, the greater the likelihood that the system will
need to be stopped to replace those that fail.
UV monitoring is also more difficult with a large number of lamps -
UV monitors are located on the wall of the UV chamber, so if a
lamp located away from the chamber wall fails, it may not be detected.
In addition, a large number of lamps impedes fluid flow through the UV
chamber, resulting in pressure headloss and higher pumping costs.
In addition to the above points, LP lamps can also be difficult to clean.
For instance, iron in solution will often form deposits on the quartz sleeve
surrounding the lamp. This affects lamp efficiency and must be kept to a
minimum. To overcome this problem MP systems utilise a mechanical wiper
which passes back and forth along the length of the quartz sleeve, keeping
it clear of iron deposits or other debris.
LP lamp systems typically rely on chemical cleaning. This usually requires
the systems to be completely stripped and the sleeves hand-cleaned - a
For these reasons many operators are switching to the newer, more efficient
MP technology for higher flow rates. With a wider - and more powerful -
UV output than LP lamps, far fewer MP lamps are required for the same
level of disinfection. Headloss is significantly reduced and monitoring is
far more effective - an essential requirement in pharmaceutical
They are not temperature sensitive and have rapid start-up times, making
them more suitable for complex process applications such as those found in
the pharmaceutical industries. Maintenance costs are also reduced as there
are physically fewer lamps to replace. Typically, 10-12 LP lamps are
required to produce the same UV output as one MP lamp.
LP products are usually used in low flow applications, often installed in
the heart of water treatment skids.
Small, single lamp units can be effectively monitored and economically used
to treat flows up to around 50m³/h.
UV units can be installed at various points along an ultrapure water
system. Installation or retrofitting to existing pipework and vessels is
relatively straightforward, requiring minimum disruption and site
Depending on the level of use, the only routine maintenance required is
changing the arc-tubes every 9-12 months, a simple procedure that can be
carried out by on-site personnel.
Once installed, the processing plant can be kept operational 24 hours a day,
without the necessity of shutting down the system for routine sanitation and
Effective validation UV dose is computed by using three independent
UV dose (fluence) = Lamp Intensity X Residence Time Distribution X
To ensure that the UV dose (lamp output) is effectively measured,
each of the process variables needs to be measured. Many UV monitors
have adjustable potentiometers to allow simple re-calibration.
This does not make the measurement relative, nor absolute. The monitor
camera should be sealed, and calibrated against a traceable norm. An audit
trail should be provided with each lamp and monitor to ensure that the lamp
output, measured in W/sq.cm, of germicidal UV is measured, not
The same is true of the monitor response, measured in mW/sq.cm.
No in-field adjustment to the monitor camera should be possible, and
normally these cameras should be returned to the manufacturer for
re-calibration in accordance with the audit trail.
Each lamp should have a unique serial number, together with a certificate of
It is standard practice to be able to measure, not infer, UV dose
expressed in mJ/sq.cm with a dedicated monitor camera for each lamp.
Those who seek to apply Good Manufacturing Practice are able to data-log the
UV dose received by the water, and the validation of the process is
completed with an event stamp of any UV fault, showing date and time,
and providing a permanent record of the recorded fault.
Recent research has shown that short wavelengths (below 200nm) are highly
effective at breaking down organic molecules present in water, especially
low molecular weight contaminants.
Experiments carried out by the company using a PFW (purified water) loop
showed that below 200nm UV works in two ways: the first method is by
direct photolysis, when energy from the UV actually breaks down
chemical bonds within the organics; the second method is by the photolysis
of water molecules, splitting them to create charged OH- radicals, which
also attack the organics.
It was also discovered that increasing the power input to the UV system
was actually found to be detrimental to effective treatment, as higher
wattage per unit surface area increases the temperature of the quartz sleeve
of the arc tube, shortening its life and inhibiting the shorter wavelength
Higher power input causes the internal pressure of the arc tube to rise as
well, which also cuts off short wavelength UV.
Traditionally, MP lamps have been used for TOC reduction, but their output
below 200nm is relatively low, limiting their effectiveness.
New lamps have therefore been developed with a sub-200nm output between two
and three times that of any previous MP lamp.
They are also designed to operate at lower temperatures than conventional MP
lamps, increasing lamp life and optimizing UV output below 200nm,
where it has the greatest potential for reducing TOC.
The make-up water to many pharmaceutical plants is derived from municipal
water supplies and, for over 50 years, free chlorine has been widely used
for residual disinfection.
When chlorine is injected into waters with naturally occurring humic acids,
fulvic acids and other naturally occurring materials, trihalomethane (THM)
compounds are formed.
Since some THMs have been demonstrated to be cancer-causing to laboratory
animals in relatively low concentrations, the US environmental protection
agency has set their maximum contaminant level in primary drinking water to
be 100 parts per billion (ppb) since 1979.
In addition, because of its properties, chlorine can damage delicate process
equipment like reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and deionisation (DI) resin
units and must be removed once it has performed its disinfection function.
To date, the two most commonly used methods of chlorine removal have been
granular activated carbon (GAC) filters or the addition of neutralising
chemicals such as sodium bisulphite and sodium metabisulphite.
Both of these methods have their advantages, but they also have a number of
GAC filters, because of their porous structure and nutrient-rich
environment, can become a breeding ground for bacteria.
Dechlorination chemicals such as sodium bisulphite, which are usually
injected just in front of RO membranes, can also act as incubators for
bacteria, causing biofouling of the membranes.
In addition, these chemicals are hazardous to handle and there is a danger
of over or under-dosing due to human error.
Medium pressure UV is now becoming increasingly popular as an
effective alternative method of dechlorination.
It has none of the drawbacks of GAC or neutralising chemicals, while
effectively reducing both free chlorine and combined chlorine compounds
(chloramines) into easily removed by-products.
Between the wavelengths 180nm to 400nm UV light produces
photochemical reactions which dissociate free chlorine to form hydrochloric
The peak wavelengths for dissociation of free chlorine range from 180 nm to
200 nm, while the peak wavelengths for dissociation of combined chlorine
(mono, di, and tri-chloramine) range from 245nm to 365nm.
Up to 5ppm of chloramines can be successfully destroyed in a single pass
through a UV reactor and up to 15ppm of free chlorine can be removed.
The UV dosage required for dechlorination depends on total chlorine
level, ratio of free vs combined chlorine, background level of organics and
target reduction concentrations.
The usual dose for removal of free chlorine is 15 to 30 times higher than
the normal disinfection dose of 30,000 microWatt-seconds per centimetre
Additional important benefits of using UV dechlorination are high
levels of UV disinfection, total organic carbon (TOC) destruction and
improved overall water quality at point-of-use.
UV is a key process tool that can ensure purified water loops operate
at the highest levels of microbiological integrity.
Its benefits are many: installation is easy, requiring little disruption to
the plant; maintenance is simple and can be carried out by on-site
personnel; as a non-chemical method of treatment, there is no possibility of
a detrimental effect on product stability and products are also free from
unwanted residues, colors and odors.
Independent audit trails now allow UV dose measurements to be
accurately measured, not inferred, with the intensity calibrated against an
In addition, data-logging ensures that compliance can be measured and
demonstrated, not simply guessed.
It is also being successfully utilised for TOC reduction, dechlorination and
dechloramination by some of the world's leading pharmaceutical
Water utility plans for future /link deactivated/
By Donna Stehling/Sauk Prairie EaglE
The village of Prairie du Sac will sign a letter of intent to purchase a
water purification system.
This is the ultraviolet light system brought in by Dr. Mark Borchardt
of the Marshfield Clinic Foundation. He is conducting a unique groundwater
resources research project funded by the Environmental Protection Agency.
Village officials agreed to state their intent to purchase the BX1800 now on
Well 3 and to upgrade to B400XL for Well 2, a more powerful system because,
following the recommendation of their engineer, the village will be
deepening that well in five to seven years to provide increased capacity for
an expanding community.
This letter of intent does not obligate the village to finalize the
If they elect to make the purchase, they will receive the units in November
2007 after the research project is completed at approximately half their
original cost. Funds to purchase the equipment would be from the water
The purpose of the study is to help assess the risk of gastro-intestinal
illnesses in children drinking municipal water from a groundwater resource.
"Some diseases seem to have groundwater sources," Borchardt told village
When Borchardt began recruiting municipalities for this project, there were
two such research projects in the nation. Now there is only this Marshfield
"Florida dropped off for lack of people," Borchardt said.
Borchardt said 40 of the 50 Wisconsin communities he approached were
interested in participating. He selected 14 municipalities; eight have the
ultraviolet disinfectant reactor systems installed on their well
heads and six are without.
When Borchardt took water samples prior to putting in the system in Prairie
du Sac, he said tests indicated there were some pathogens in the water,
something he said was not surprising because it is the same in other
"After the UV lights were on, no viruses were detected," Borchardt
Since disinfection treatment began with the light system, both wells
have tested negative for norovirus. Water testing will continue for another
nine months. Families participating in the project keep weekly health logs
and household water samples are also taken.
Borchardt said ultraviolet light passes through the water, killing
many viruses and bacteria, but it will not affect chemicals in the water. In
Prairie du Sac the disinfectant action can take place at 500 gallons a
minute because the water is so clear.
"You'll get lots of dose for the money," Borchardt said. "There's great
capacity for growth."
Borchardt said there are no regulatory requirements now to have this system,
but he suspects this project could be leading the way.
Until now, municipalities chlorinate their water to control viruses and
"I like the idea of UV rather than chlorinate," said public works
director Pat Drone.
"Some viruses are resistant to chlorination," Borchardt said.
He said viruses get into the water supply by many means: breaks in pipes for
construction, because of failure or by accident.
Ultraviolet light, he said is effective against chriptospiridium,
salmonella, ecoli and norovirus.
The units last 15 to 20 years, based on units in use in Europe and Canada.
In six to 10 years, valves need replacement. The lamps are warranted for
If the water is high in iron, the lamps need to be cleaned more frequently.
Here the lamps are cleaned every two to three weeks.
"Some communities need no maintenance and some are higher maintenance,"
Borchardt said. ...
Water utility plans for future /link deactivated/
Cresco city awaits installation of new ultraviolet waste water treatment
During the final stage of waste water treatment, all bacteria is removed
from the water using chlorine, which enables the water to leave the plant
crystal clear - into a Silver Creek tributary northeast of Cresco.
"Chlorine kills the bacteria," Lloyd said. "E. Coli bacteria, which is
natural in humans, gets killed off here. Then, you don't end up with it in
the streams and contaminating everything else."
But, regardless of how effective the chlorine is in ridding water of
bacteria, handling the chlorine is extremely dangerous, and Lloyd said
that's the main reason the city is planning to install an ultraviolet
waste water treatment device.
"Chlorine gas was the first chemical weapon used - in World War I," Lloyd
said. "I know that in the community I was with, they used chlorine gas in
their water treatment.
The other problem with chlorine, Lloyd said, is that it is difficult to
measure how much chlorine is needed in the treatment process. The city
manager said too little chlorine allows bacteria to escape the plant while
too much chlorine pollutes the stream the plant feeds.
"The ultraviolet light prevents all that," he said. "The UV will
neutralize everything that passes over it."
Lloyd said the Blazek Corporation of Lawler won the bid for the installation
of the UV purification system. The $528,110 unit will be built into
the facility's current treatment system in place of the chlorine-related
portions of the plant. Freidhof said the UV unit will adjust itself
based on the amount of bacteria passing through it.
"It's going to be fitted right in here, which is a good thing, because it
will save us a lot of money," Freidhof said. "We won't have to build a whole
new tank for it."
"It will also save us money, because of the upkeep of the chlorine unit,"
Lloyd said. "Chlorine is a regular cost. This will be more of an electrical
Freidhof explained the decision to purchase the UV system came about
after the city realized its need to update the waste water treatment
facility's chlorine system. He said that when considering the cost of the
much-needed updates, the city decided it "may as well go with the UV."
The bottom line, the two men agreed, is that with the addition of the UV
treatment system, the water leaving the waste water facility will be cleaner
than ever - if that's possible.
"This is where we set our minnow trap," Freidhof said with a smile, point at
the mouth leading from the plant into the nearby stream. "If the minnows
survive, the water is good, and they swim right up there."
"With the UV system, you're not adding anything to the stream that
isn't natural," Lloyd said. "Chlorine isn't natural, and if you add too much
chlorine to it, you're going to end up with dead fish. It's just so
Lloyd said the city hopes the new UV system will be installed by the
start of the new year.
City meets first milestone of expanded water treatment plant /link
Woodland's Water Pollution Control Facility has officially become a tertiary
This is the first milestone of a two-year expansion project at the WPCF,
according to city officials...
Environmental regulations have changed and became more stringent through the
years. As the laws changed, the city's type of treatment system has had to
evolve to comply with State requirements.
"The current technology employed with the tertiary treatment system are
state of the art filtration units that can trap particles down to ten
microns in size," according to Gary Wegener, the city's Public Works
Director. "While the WPCF meets all numeric limits in the discharge permit,
the filtration units remove particulates from the waste stream which
enhances the quality of the treated effluent which is then discharged to
Tule canal. The previous secondary treatment system did not have any
The WPCF disinfection system has also changed from chlorination to ultra
violet lights. A major advantage of the UV system is that it
eliminates the risk of an accidental discharge of the chlorine gas. Plant
safety procedures are greatly simplified with the switch from chlorine gas
disinfection, and employee safety is greatly enhanced.
The city workers at the treatment plant will also be safe from occupational
exposure to chlorine, an acutely hazardous material, stated Wegener. "The
UV system also eliminates hazardous by-products of chlorination, a
carcinogen known as trihalomethane, from the discharge stream. UV
also helps to destroy pathogens and viruses which filtration can't remove.
The UV light penetrates the cell walls and damages the genetic
composition of bacteria, viruses and pathogens, preventing them from
After a month of testing the newly completed tertiary treatment plant
effluent, the city notified the state that the first batch of tertiary
treated wastewater was released into Tule canal on June 28.
The tertiary treatment is the initial phase of a $35 million project to
expand, upgrade, and provide flood protection for the plant. Funding for the
expansion related work is provided by development fees paid by developers at
the time a building permit is issued (Wastewater development fees are $7,011
per single-family home)....
meets first milestone of expanded water treatment plant /link deactivated/
Using Rainwater At Home
You may not find the systems in many places, but there are people around
Central Texas who say they're saving a lot of money on their water bills by
In Williamson County, they just instituted a burn ban, because of wildfire
danger in these dry conditions. When you talk about needing some rain, for
some people it has added value. ...
Two years ago, Larrison built his rainwater collection system, for about
$2,000, in his new country home.
Rain is collected off a barn roof, goes into a couple of 2,500 gallon
tanks and then gets filtered three times including an ultra-violet
filter before going into his house.
"It's the UV light that will sterilize the water," Larrison said.
"It tastes a lot better than city water. PH is just right. It's very good
for washing, cooking and cleaning," Larrison said. ...
Siemens Unveils New Drinking Water UV Disinfection System
The Water Technologies division of Siemens' Industrial Solutions and
Services (I&S) Group has introduced a higher capacity model to its line of
Barrier M UV disinfection systems for potable water applications: the
Barrier M Model 3800. This UV model can handle flow rates up to 7.3
mgd (5,063 gpm) at a transmittance level of 98%.
The Barrier M 3800 UV system provides a cost-effective, reliable and
operator-friendly solution to medium- and large-sized community drinking
water systems. Adding the Barrier M UV system to other disinfection
processes provides a multi-barrier approach, and ensures complete
inactivation of all waterborne pathogens. The Model 3800's compact reaction
chamber enables easy, flexible installation, especially in retrofit
situations where space is limited.
DVGW-certified to provide a minimum Reduction Equivalent Dose of 40mJ/cm²,
the 3800 model will be granted a 3-log inactivation credit for
Cryptosporidium and Giardia by the EPA's UV Disinfection Guidance Manual.
The Barrier M Model 3800 UV disinfection system is part of the
Wallace & Tiernan product line from Siemens Water Technologies. Barrier is a
registered trademark of Siemens, its subsidiaries and/or its affiliates.
Ultraviolet for Sperryville Plant
by Monty Tayloe, Rappahannock News (Times Community
The Rappahannock County Water and Sewer Authority received a donation from
Prince William County of two ultraviolet light units that should save
the county thousands of dollars in costs at the Sperryville Water Treatment
The WSA learned of the donation at their July 6 meeting, which they also
began consideration of their 2007-2007 operating budget. The budget includes
a 5% raise for all three Water and Sewer employees, which is consistent with
other county employees. This was also the first meeting for new member Ruth
Kiger, who was appointed last month by Piedmont Supervisor Tom Taylor.
Once installed, the UV units should kill harmful bacteria in the
water by radiating UV light. Currently the county uses chlorine for
the same purpose. However, water treated with chlorine must then be treated
with a chemical called Dechlor, which removes the chlorine from the
outflowing water. Chlorine can ultimately pollute water sources and kill
fish. Once installed, the UV units will eliminate the need for either
chemical and the manpower required to test chlorine levels. However, UV
units still require their own form of monitoring, to insure that they are
"We'll save six to nine thousand dollars a year on chemicals and manpower,"
said Daniel Keyser, Treasurer of the Water and Sewer Authority.
The UV units came Rappahannock County's way after Prince William
County upgraded the size of their plant. The new plant requires larger UV
fixtures, so Prince William's loss became Rappahannock's gain. The units
will require some repairs, but will ultimately cost the county only a couple
thousand dollars in installation fees. New, the purifying fixtures cost
around ten thousand dollars plus installation.
Calgon Carbon loses UV patent round in court
PITTSBURGH (WaterTech Online)
Calgon Carbon Corp. said this week that a federal court has declared invalid
the company's patent on the use of ultraviolet (UV) light to prevent
Cryptosporidium contamination of drinking water.
In a July 3 press release, Calgon Carbon said it would "vigorously" appeal
the ruling, which was made on a motion for summary judgment before the US
District Court for the District of New Jersey.
A Canadian appeals court recently had ruled in favor of the company's UV
patent in that nation by overruling a lower court, but the company says
there is no assurance that a similar result will occur in the appeal of the
Of the US case, John Stanik, president and CEO of Calgon Carbon, was quoted
in the press release as saying, "We are, of course, disappointed with the
ruling, but recognize that patent issues are complex and are often resolved
in the higher courts."
A recent article in the Pittsburgh Business Times said that Calgon Carbon
holds patents in 26 countries on the use of UV for drinking water
disinfection, noting that the New Jersey case involves three companies
disputing Calgon Carbon's patent, among them Wedeco, a division of ITT
A Calgon Carbon spokeswoman was quoted by the Pittsburgh Business Times as
saying that Calgon Carbon will continue to sell UV technology, but
the New Jersey decision for now prevents the company from charging others a
licensing fee for its use.
Calgon Carbon, based in Pittsburgh, says on its Web site that the patented
UV technology, developed in 1996, is the basis of its Sentinel® UV
Disinfection System, which the company calls "a landmark technology for
the control of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and waterborne, pathogenic bacteria
UV irradiation in the home improves kids' asthma /link deactivated/
NEW YORK (Reuters Health)
The use of centrally installed ultraviolet (UV) irradiation units in
the homes of asthmatic children who are sensitized to mold can improve their
symptoms, according to a new report.
The idea is that UV light kills off circulating microbial agents that
can trigger asthma.
The study is one of only a few to look at the health benefits of UV air
disinfection systems, Dr. Jonathan A. Bernstein, from the University of
Cincinnati in Ohio, and colleagues note in the May issue of the Journal of
Asthma. Also, many of the previous studies have focused on the use of these
systems in an office environment, not at home.
In a 28-week 'crossover' trial, the researchers assessed respiratory
symptoms in 19 children with asthma first while UV irradiation units
were running in the home central ventilation system and then when dummy
units were installed, or vice versa.
UV irradiation was delivered by the CREON2000 Photonic Air
Disinfection system, which can operate continuously due to the presence of a
pre-filter system that prevents dust from accumulating on the UV lamps.
Compared with the placebo situation, the use of the UV irradiation system
was associated with a significant improvement in the children's peak
expiratory flow rate, the report indicates.
In addition, the system seemed to improve asthma symptoms and reduce asthma
medication usage by 51 percent, compared to 13 percent with placebo.
A larger study "to validate the clinical health effects of UV irradiation
as a primary indoor environmental intervention for allergic asthma" is
necessary to confirm the present findings, the researchers conclude.
SOURCE: Journal of Asthma, May 2006.
Veolia Water to design UV wastewater plant
Veolia Water North America has signed an
agreement to design, build and operate a New York wastewater treatment
plant, according to a May 30 Business Wire press release.
The plant will be located in Hillburn, NY, and will service residents of
western Ramapo, including the villages of Sloatsburg and Hillburn, the
The new facility will feature an ultraviolet (UV) disinfection system
that will produce effluent that exceeds all environmental wastewater quality
standards issued by the federal and New York governments; the facility will
also be completely enclosed for odor control, the release said.
According to the release, the $45 million project will begin immediately and
construction is expected to last approximately two years.
UV method rids leafy vegetables of pathogens
A more effective way of cleaning vegetables such as leafy greens can
dramatically reduce the risk of contamination, according to a Canadian
The new way of cleaning produce will not only make food safer to consume,
but it should also extend the shelf life of products because vegetables are
often spoiled by microbial action.
At least 19 food-borne illness outbreaks have been linked to leafy greens
since 1995, resulting in two deaths and 425 people becoming seriously ill,
according to figures from the US Food and Drug Administration.
Problems with contaminated vegetables getting to the market can occur when
pathogens actually get into the internal tissue of such greens as lettuce,
said Keith Warriner, a professor at the University of Guelph's department of
When lettuce is harvested for bagged salads it is normally kept cool in
containers of water and then washed again at the processing plant, he said.
If the water is contaminated, which it sometimes is, bacteria will be passed
onto the lettuce.
“You can wash it for as long as you like, but you're not going to remove all
the pathogens because they can hide in cut edges and the pores of the
lettuce leaves," he said.
To find a way to eliminate pathogens in vegetables, Warriner, along with
researcher Christina Hajdok, decided to apply the same method used to
decontaminate food cartons.
Like fresh produce, the surface of carton packaging material is full of
crevices that can provide protective sites for microbes.
The method involves sterilizing milk, juice and soup cartons with a spray of
hydrogen peroxide at the same time they are illuminated with UV light.
The UV light converts the hydrogen peroxide into antimicrobial free
radicals that penetrate into the packaging material to inactivate microbes.
To test the method on produce, Warriner artificially contaminated tomatoes,
cauliflower, iceberg lettuce, romaine lettuce, Spanish onions and broccoli
with Salmonella. After “cleaning” the vegetables using the hydrogen peroxide
and UV method, he managed to achieve almost complete inactivation of
“The good thing about hydrogen peroxide and UV is that they make free
radicals that can penetrate right into the subsurface of vegetables so we
can ensure the pathogens in the lettuce leaf can be inactivated, something
that washing cannot do,” said Warriner.
Consumers would not actually be consuming any hydrogen peroxide by eating
vegetables that have been cleaned by the method, said Warriner.
Plants contain enzymes called catalase that degrade hydrogen peroxide into
water. The free radicals are so short-lived that within seconds they do
their job and are converted to water as the by product.
Warriner said he has determined the optimal levels of hydrogen peroxide and
exposure time. Next, he will test his decontamination method on produce
contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 and other viruses to show the true
potential of the system.
In October last year, 23 people in three states became sick from eating
lettuce contaminated with E. coli O157:H7. Most people aren't aware that,
next to ground beef, fresh produce is the most common culprit in food-borne
illness, Warriner said.
At least 19 food-borne illness outbreaks have been linked to leafy greens
since 1995, resulting in two deaths and 425 people becoming seriously ill,
according to the US Food and Drug Administration.
First New Jersey public UV water treatment facility
WaterTech Online PHILLIPSBURG, NJ
The state's first public water treatment facility using ultraviolet light
(UV) disinfection technology is up and running in Lopatcong Township,
serving 10,600 Aqua New Jersey Inc. customers in four townships, according
to a March 24 Aqua America press release.
The $2.6 million treatment facility is capable of treating 10.5 million
gallons per day, using the UV treatment as an added level of
disinfection in the chlorination process, the release said.
Aqua America Chairman and CEO Nicholas DeBenedictis was quoted in the press
release as saying, "We are not only enhancing water quality without the need
for additional chemicals, but the process produces no waste materials that
require disposal." ...
Fencl Reappointed ASHRAE’s Distinguished Lecturer On UVC
PR Web Newswire
Forrest Fencl of UV Resources, has received an additional two year
appointment as one of a handful of ASHRAE members selected as Distinguished
ASHRAE's Distinguished Lecturers Program began in Society year 1996-97. The
purpose of the program is to provide ASHRAE chapters with lecturers equipped
to speak on relevant subjects of interest to its members and guests. The
program provides ASHRAE chapters, student branches, neighboring universities
and colleges, and other organizations the opportunity to collaborate, and
hear outstanding speakers on the leading edge of technology.
Mr. Fencl’s 2005 Distinguished Lecture speaking engagements include
coast-to-coast travels in the US, as well as an ASHRAE sponsored trip to
Asia where he lectured to Chapters in Hong Kong, Singapore, and Thailand.
Mr. Fencl’s lectures teach UVC for: “Improved System Capacity,
Maintenance and IAQ”, “Controlling Circulating Infectious Agents” and “Bio/Chem-Oriented
UV disinfection in the beverage industry
Hanovia PR /Processingtalk /
Microbial growth in beverages due to contaminated water supplies or sugar
syrups can cause discoloration, off flavors and shortened shelf-life:
microbial disinfection is available using UV
Microbial growth in beverages due to contaminated water supplies or sugar
syrups can cause discoloration, off flavors and shortened shelf-life. The
threat of contamination is further increased as manufacturers respond to
consumer demands for less chemical additives and preservatives. Effective
microbial disinfection of the whole manufacturing process is therefore
essential. A non-chemical method of disinfection which is gaining increasing
acceptance is ultraviolet (UV) disinfection.
Hanovia UV systems kill all known spoilage micro-organisms, including
bacteria, viruses, yeasts and molds (and their spores).
UV is a low maintenance, environmentally friendly technology which
eliminates the need for chemical treatment while ensuring high levels of
disinfection. UV disinfection has many advantages over alternative
methods. Unlike chemical treatment, UV does not introduce toxins or
residues into process water and does not alter the chemical composition,
taste, odor or pH of the fluid being disinfected. This feature is especially
important in the beverage industry where the chemical dosing of incoming
process water can cause off-flavors and alter the chemical properties of the
Hanovia UV systems can be used for primary water or sugar syrup
disinfection or as a back-up for other purification methods such as carbon
filtration, reverse osmosis or pasteurization. As UV has no residual
effect, the best position for a treatment system is immediately prior to the
point of use. This ensures incoming microbiological contaminants are
destroyed and there is a minimal chance of post-treatment contamination.
All Hanovia UV disinfection systems are easy to install, with minimum
disruption to the plant. They need very little maintenance, the only
requirement being replacement of the UV lamps every 12 months,
depending on use. This is a simple operation that takes only a few minutes
and can be carried out by general maintenance staff.
Siemens UV disinfection systems receive DVGW certification
Disinfection systems of the UV Wave and UV Astron/Barrier M
series have been issued with the certificate for “UV systems for
disinfection of water supply” by DVGW (Deutsche Vereinigung des Gas- und
Wasserfaches e.V. = German association for gas and water). This makes
Wallace & Tiernan, a subsidiary of the Siemens Industrial Solutions and
Services Group (I&S), the first company in the world to offer certified
UV systems with low-pressure as well as with medium-pressure lamps.
The DVGW certification body tests and certifies gas and water products on
the basis of DVGW standards as well as nationally and internationally
recognized directives, standards and certification programs. The technical
standards of the DVGW form the basis for safety and reliability in the
German gas and water supply industry and are also taken into account by
other European countries.
Wallace & Tiernan GmbH (of Günzburg, Germany), a company belonging to the
Water Technologies Division of the Siemens Industrial Solutions and Services
Group, supplies system-based solutions for water treatment and purification.
These include chlorine or chlorine dioxide metering systems, electrolysis
equipment as well as UV systems for disinfection, phosphate
elimination devices, lime slaking equipment, preparation systems for
polyelectrolyte solutions, dry-goods metering devices for the wastewater
area and also measuring and control devices for monitoring and metering...
UV system to disinfect water for man-made river
CHARLOTTE, NC /WaterTechONLINE/
What its creators are calling the first man-made whitewater river in the
world designed with a recirculating water supply will have its water
disinfected by a closed-chamber, medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) system...
The US National Whitewater Center in Charlotte, scheduled to open in May,
will use UV equipment to treat city water and well water that it will
then recirculate for use by kayakers; it will serve as the training ground
for the US Olympic kayak team, the press release said.
The park water will first be pumped through a 130-micron disc filter to
remove suspended solids and will then flow through the UV system to
kill harmful bacteria and other organisms; the system is rated to treat
flows of 8,000 to 9,000 gallons per minute...
Delphos council approves water plant contract /link deactivated/
By DAVID TRINKO, /Lima News/
The Delphos City Council unanimously approved signing a contract with a
contractor to build a state-of-the-art water system.
The council unanimously approved the mayor and/or the safety service
director to enter into a $12.48 million contract with Peterson Construction
Co. for the new water treatment plant. Council President Bob Ulm introduced
an amended section to the ordinance, installing granular activated carbon,
ultraviolet treatment and soda ash treatment to treat the water in
the aboveground system.
“Perhaps the most important thing is it not only meets but exceeds the
EPA requirements, and I believe we’ll be in compliance for years to come,”
Ulm said. “We’re incorporating some very, very state-of-the-art technologies
here to give people the best quality water.”
Ulm commended the council for its unanimous voice on the water project, a
hot topic of conversation in the city since 1964. He said he hoped the
system could be finished by fall 2007. Mayor Jerry Neumeier said he wouldn’t
use his veto authority on the issue and supported the measure for the city’s
future. He expressed his pride in being what he believed was the first city
in Ohio to use all granular activated carbon, ultraviolet treatment
and soda ash treatment together to treat its water.
“I know with a project in excess of $12 million, there’s a lot of
apprehension,” he said. “This is a step forward for Delphos, though. We’ll
be getting our residents the best possible water, and this extra capacity
should help us get economic development in the right direction too. We’ll be
proud of the quality water we’re providing.”
2006: ITT Awarded UV Water Disinfection Contract by U.K. Utility
WHITE PLAINS, N.Y., /PR Newswire/
ITT Industries, Inc. (NYSE: ITT), a leading provider of water treatment
technology, today announced that it has been awarded a sole source
Ultraviolet (UV) Water Framework contract by United Utilities Plc. of the United Kingdom. This is the first
major framework contact award for UV potable water disinfection by a
The contract calls for the design, supply, installation, testing,
commission and maintenance of ITT's WEDECO Enclosed Ultraviolet
Reactor Systems for potable water disinfection. The United Utilities
contract covers a period of two years with an option to extend. The contract
award was based on ITT WEDECO designing and supplying seven water treatment
plants throughout Northwest England. Each UV treatment system is
designed to fit local needs, but initial designs may treat flows up to 72
million liters of water per day. Over the contract period, the installed
base may be valued in excess of $2.5 million.
"As a leader in water treatment, ITT is pleased to bring our focus on
life-cycle costs, maintenance, technical support, and global reach to help
United Utilities meet their customers' need for clean water," said Andre
Dhawan, president of ITT's WEDECO business. "We hope to build on this award
and develop further our strong relationship with United Utilities to include
their other facilities as they expand worldwide."
ITT Industries, Inc. supplies advanced technology products and services
in key markets including: fluid and water management including water
treatment; defense communication, opto-electronics, information technology
and services; electronic interconnects and switches; and other specialty
products. Headquartered in White Plains, NY, the company generated $7.4
billion in 2005 sales. In addition to the New York Stock Exchange, ITT
Industries stock is traded on the Pacific, Paris, London and Frankfurt
UV rays might affect how rust spores spread, says expert
By Beth Forbes, Purdue University
Purdue University soybean expert Greg Shaner offers some of the latest
thoughts on Asian soybean rust heading into the 2006 planting season. Shaner
and other Purdue researchers and Extension specialists are still making
plans for another summer of stepped-up vigilance. They also have some new
hypotheses about the fungal disease that might surprise you.
"Last year's lessons indicate that soybean rust may not spread that
rapidly," said Greg Shaner, a professor of botany and plant pathology. "We
also know that just because the spores are present, doesn't necessarily mean
you'll get soybean rust. Last year, there was no direct connection between
when you find spores and when you find rust." ...
"We think that ultraviolet light may have affected the viability of
the spores," Shaner said.
That hypothesis is tied to the fact that spores of the soybean rust fungus
are mainly produced on the underside of leaves where they are protected from
direct sunlight. Soybean rust spores carried on the wind and in clouds are
exposed to large amounts of ultraviolet light that may make them
impotent, according to Shaner, who said further research will have to be
done to test this theory.
Despite the lack of soybean rust in Indiana, diseases like frogeye leaf spot
and sudden death syndrome did bring down yields in some areas.
January 18, 2006:
District Ok's UV chamber; MAWC change coincided with problem
By Zandy Dudiak, Murrysville Star
People who use the Franklin Regional Middle School pool can breathe - and
see - easier now that the school board has awarded a contract for an
ultraviolet disinfection chamber to combat a chloramine problem.
In addition to the $34,400 to be paid to to B&R Pools of Pittsburgh, the
district will have to spend $650 for metal fencing to surround the unit and
$400 for an electrical conduit and circuit breaker box.
Approved Monday night, the contract is being reviewed by solicitor Jack
Cambest before the district proceeds with the purchase. After the purchase
is completed, it will take five weeks for the equipment to be in place.
Chloramines, which are particles of organic and chlorine material, have
caused swimmers at the pool to suffer skin, eye and respiratory infections
this fall. Chloramines are released into the air with pool use.
The ultraviolet chamber kills organic materials in the water,
reducing the amount of chloramines. The system also will kill bacteria,
viruses and molds.
January 12, 2006:
City to take part in ultraviolet water study
Rice Lake Online
Rice Lake and Cameron are among 14 Wisconsin communities selected for a
study of the effects of ultraviolet light on drinking water. The
study, conducted by Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation, is funded through
a federal Environmental Protection Agency grant.
In Rice Lake, the study is expected to begin in March.
Rice Lake Utilities general manager Scott Reimer emphasized that there is no
current problem with the Rice Lake water system. He said the study was
approved in December by the Utilities Commission.
Under the study, ultraviolet lights will be installed at every city
well in seven communities. The other seven communities will serve as a
Researchers say the lights, which are similar to very strong sunlight, will
provide additional purification by killing any germs if they are present in
the water. The experiment will have no effect on the taste or smell of the
Families with children aged 6 months to 13 years in each community will be
contacted by the researchers and asked to sign up for the study. That will
be about 70 families in Cameron.
Signed-up families will then record their children’s illnesses for four
3-month periods. Researchers say health information will be kept
confidential. Researchers will draw about 200 gallons of water from some
study households to test for germs.
Selected families will receive $100 if all study procedures are completed.
After the second 3-month period, the ultraviolet lights will be moved
to the other communities.
The study is headed up by Dr. Mark Borchardt of the Marshfield Clinic
Research Foundation. An earlier story in the Milwaukee Journal reported that
in 2003, in a study funded by the state Department of Natural Resources,
Borchardt tested 50 wells at four different times throughout Wisconsin and
found that four of the wells contained viral contamination, including
Cameron’s Village Board voted to be a part of the study on Monday after
Borchardt explained the study to the board.
Borchardt told the village board that the study’s purpose is to determine
whether any of four types of viruses are in a community’s well or water
system and whether those viruses have any impact on the health of people
consuming that water.
He said the viruses have been associated with illnesses ranging from
flu-like illnesses through more serious conditions such as cancer and heart