UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their
accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.
UV Articles 2012
Pulsed UVC irradiation selectively kills cancer cells
A new and highly effective cancer therapy that irradiates cancer cells
with ultraviolet C (UVC) light has been developed at the Tokai University
School of Medicine in Japan.
The new method employs high intensity-UVC pulse flash rays (UVCPFR) of a
broad UVC spectrum (230 to 280 nm) produced by a modified UV-flash
sterilization system (BHX200).
The pulsed nature of the spectrum enhances the efficiency of destruction of
neoplastic cells. Importantly, the research demonstrates that under the
appropriate UVC irradiation conditions only neoplastic cell are destroyed,
and non-neoplastic cells do not reach conditions of cell death.
Background, results, and implications
The well-known 'germicidal light' of low pressure mercury lamps (UV lamp) is
widely used for sterilizing medical instruments. However, it takes several
hours for the weak light from UV lamps to have their germicidal effects.
In contrast, the sterilization effects of UV pulsed flash rays (wavelengths
of 230–280nm and peak wavelength of 248 nm) show promise as more efficient
and rapid means of destroying a wider range of bacteria because this type of
irradiation produces light whose energy is tens of thousands of times
greater for a given area of irradiation, compared with conventional UV lamps
UVC pulse flash rays (UVCPFR) with 1–10 continuous flashes per second can be
produced by powerful discharge of xenon gas. Johbu Itoh and colleagues at
the Tokai University School of Medicine has developed and established UVCPFR
therapy system for cancer therapy.
MCF7: neoplastic cell, COS7:non-neoplastic cell. The Ultra Violet C (UVC)
pulse flash irradiation only selectivity caused death of neoplastic cells,
and not non-neoplastic cells.
The researchers irradiated cells with pulsed light UVCPFR and caused
functional disorder to produce cell injury and/or a functional obstruction
only to neoplastic cells. Higher ultraviolet radiation sensitivity in the
UVC range was observed in neoplastic cells compared to non-neoplastic cells.
That is, a short burst of ultraviolet radiation was sufficient to
selectively induce injury and death to neoplastic cells.
Furthermore, experiments showed UVCPFR to cause cell death within a few
seconds. One of the major features of this method is that below a certain
range of irradiation conditions, damage to intact or non-neoplastic cells
can be largely ignored, and only neoplastic cells die. This method offers a
simple means of reducing the burden on patients undergoing cancer therapy.
Details of these findings were described by Johbu Itoh at the International
Congress of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry (ICHC 2012) in Kyoto this week.
Itoh and colleagues plan to develop this system compatible for cancer
treatment using endoscopy, laser microscopy, and other such light
UV Experience for Inactivating Cryptosporidium in Surface Water Plants
Wateronline.com / Authors: Keith Bircher, G. Elliott Whitby and John Platz
Regulatory Background - The disinfection of pathogenic microbes in drinking water has been
successful over the last century largely due to the use of chlorination. However, research conducted
in the 1970’s revealed that by-products formed during the chlorination process are
potentially carcinogenic and that there is a direct correlation between the
concentration of chlorination by-products and the probability of certain cancers and other health problems. Following these
discoveries, drinking water regulators have struggled within the confines of technological and
economic limitations to find a balance between the benefits of chlorination and its harmful side effects.
In the U.S.A., the Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) of 1989 mandates inactivation levels
for Giardia cysts and enteric viruses, and also sets treatment standards for Trihalomethanes
(THM’s, a common disinfection by-product). The SWTR provides guidance to drinking water
facilities through “CT” tables that prescribe the inactivation efficacy of various processes under
varying water quality conditions. By following this guidance, most water treatment plants were
able to provide an adequate degree of disinfection while not compromising their Disinfection By-Product (DBP) limits and without requiring major changes to their plants.
However, continuing DBP health effect research indicated that even the DBP standards required in
the SWTR of 1989 produced an unacceptable level of risk and the SWTR was amended in 1996 to
lower the level of DBP’s. The new DBP standards have caused many plants to fall out of
compliance, requiring either extensive plant modifications or new disinfection strategies. In
addition, a major outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in Milwaukee in 1993, and other minor cryptosporidiosis
and giardiasis outbreaks caused regulators to create a removal requirement for Cryptosporidium oocysts in the
1998 Interim Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (IESWTR) and a further treatment
requirement in the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule (LT2ESWTR) which was promulgated in December 2005. The LT2ESWTR includes a treatment
requirement for Cryptosporidium and many surface water plants will fall out of compliance due to the very poor
ability of chlorination to inactivate Cryptosporidium. A void was created for water treatment
technologies that will inactivate protozoa and viruses, not create DBPs, and
are economically feasible. One technology that meets all three criteria is ultraviolet (UV) disinfection.
Ultraviolet light has long been known to be effective for the inactivation of viruses and bacteria
in drinking water and guidelines for the disinfection of viruses with UV light exist in the U.S.
EPA Alternative Disinfectants and Oxidants Guidance Manual. However prior to 1998, UV was
widely considered to be ineffective at economically feasible UV doses for encysted protozoa
(like Giardia and Cryptosporidium), as it was thought that UV would have to rupture the cyst
membrane wall. Since Giardia was the controlling microbe for the determination of the dose of
chlorine and since the UV dose required for Giardia was believed to be completely too high to be
considered, no reductions in chlorine usage could be gained by using UV. As a result, UV
disinfection was not used for drinking water in North America; however it has been and
continues to be used extensively in Europe for groundwater.
Breakthrough research conducted by Calgon Carbon Corporation in 1997 and
1998 proved that UV disinfection is, in fact, very effective for inactivating Cryptosporidium
and Giardia at low UV doses. Subsequent to Calgon Carbon’s research, the U.S. EPA created a UV
working group to report to the Federal Advisory Committee (FACA) on issues and costs
related to UV disinfection, resulting in the development of the UV Disinfection Guidance
Manual (UVDGM) by the U.S. EPA and the promulgation of the LT2ESWTR. Many utilities are now
using or are considering UV disinfection in their plants as either an additional barrier
for protozoa disinfection or to get disinfection credits for Cryptosporidium and/or
Giardia and to lower chlorine doses to meet the 1998 DBP standards.
Read complete article:
UV Experience for Inactivating Cryptosporidium in Surface Water Plants
October 24, 2012: “UV light strengthens plant and kills infections"
freshplaza.com / Author: Edith Mostert / Source: Horti Fair /
Publication date: 10/24/2012
UV light strengthens plants and kills infectious
bacteria and fungi
Fighting fungi, bacteria and viruses with light? It’s possible, according
to Ries Neuteboom of CleanLight. During last year’s Horti Fair the company
demonstrated a fully automatic boom mount with UV lamps attached to it. The
sprayer recently won them a prize. But how does it work?
“By treating crops daily with CleanLight (UV), all bacteria and fungi are
killed,” says Neuteboom. “That saves money on pesticides: up to 50%
according to our data. And of course UV leaves no residues.”
But isn’t UV treatment harmful to crops? No, says Neuteboom. “The crops
are only lit 1 or 2 seconds a day. And the light only strengthens the
Applying CleanLight is easy. “CleanLight is meant as a pre-emptive
measure. You use it to prevent infections. The units can be installed on
existing greenhouse equipment, like sprayers and boom mounts. But
handheld UV units can also be used, as we see in Kenya, Ethiopia and
This year’s show at Horti Fair promises another surprise. “Last year we
introduced the fully automatic boom mount with UV lamps. But this year we
really have a first! A robot with CleanLight. It moves autonomously across a
October 21, 2012:
UV Light Could Bust Hospital-Acquired Infections
huffingtonpost.com / Author: Katherine Harmon
UV light can kill almost all of the nasty bugs from the surfaces of a
About 1.7 million Americans each year acquire new infections during
hospital stays—and hospital-acquired infections are one of the top five
causes of death overall, killing 44,000 to 98,000 people in the U.S. each
Nasty Clostridium difficile can lurk on door handles and other surfaces,
leading to severe intestinal distress; Acinetobacter can also survive in the
open air, threatening to cause pneumonia, urinary tract infections and blood
infections; and vancomycin-resistant Enterococci (VRE) is tough to beat with
other drugs and can infect wound and catheter sites, as well as the
bloodstream. Even a thorough traditional cleaning by staff, with
disinfecting sprays, can leave spots untouched—and dangerously contaminated.
A new study finds that a certain frequency of ultraviolet (UV) light can
kill almost all of these nasty bugs from at least the surfaces of a hospital
room—even when not directly exposed to the light.
A team of researchers sampled five high-contact areas in hospital bedrooms
and bathrooms (such as bed rails, toilets and remote controls) where
patients with C. difficile, Acinetobacter or VRE infections had been
staying. They then brought in a machine outfitted with eight bulbs to emit
short-wave UV radiation (UV-C) for 25 to 45 minutes. Afterward, the
researchers sampled the same locations for any persisting bacteria or
“We were able to demonstrate that we could achieve well over 90 percent
reduction in each of those three bad bugs after using the UV light,”
Deverick Anderson, co-director of the Duke Infection Control Outreach
Network, and study collaborator, said during a media briefing call earlier
this week. Even shadowed surfaces that escaped direct UV exposure
demonstrated this drastic reduction in bacteria. The findings were presented
October 18 at IDWeek, a meeting to highlight progress in the fight against
infectious diseases, in San Diego.
UV-C radiation has already been deployed by food processors and utilitiesto
kill bugs in food and water, respectively—and it is also used to sterilize
some medical equipment. Putting it to use for larger targets—such as
hospital rooms—might become a new standard step in healthcare disinfection.
The researchers did not, however, compare the light’s effectiveness with
that of standard cleaning procedures. “We would never propose that the UV
light be the only form of room cleaning,” Anderson said in a prepared
statement. “But in an era of increasing antibiotic resistance, it could
become an important addition to hospitals’ arsenal.”
Previous work had shown that UV-C can also cut down on MRSA (methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus) in hospital rooms. “We have a solid foundation to
show that this approach succeeds in both experimental and real-world
conditions,” Anderson said in a prepared statement. “Now it’s time to see if
we can demonstrate that it indeed decreases the rate of infections among
patients.” After all, it would be nice to be rid of our acquired infection
risk in a flash.
The National Water Research Institute Publishes Third Edition of UV
The National Water Research Institute has published the third edition
of the Ultraviolet Disinfection Guidelines for Drinking Water and Water
The guidelines are designed to provide regulatory agencies and water and
wastewater utilities with a common basis for evaluating and implementing
ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of waterborne pathogens such as viruses,
bacteria, and parasites like Cryptosporidium and Giardia.
The announcement was made by Jeff Mosher, Executive Director of NWRI, at the
"IUVA 2012 Americas Conference" held by the International Ultraviolet
Association (IUVA) in Washington, D.C.
"Because of its advantages demand for UV is growing, based in part on the
use of recycled water to meet water supply needs," Mosher said. "The UV
Guidelines are the most commonly used reference by regulators, water and
wastewater agencies, design engineers, and equipment manufacturers to ensure
the efficacy of UV installations."
The UV Guidelines were originally prepared in 2000 by a team of water
industry experts that included university researchers, state and federal
regulators, and consultants from the U.S. and abroad.
The revisions in the Third Edition of the UV Guidelines reflect experience
gained from the application of the guidelines over the years.
The "Protocols" section of the guidelines was updated to provide a
standardized protocol for conducting "spot-check" performance of MS-2 based
viral bioassays to validate the installed performance of full-scale UV
disinfection systems. Updates also standardize the assignment of UV dose
when conducting MS-2 based viral assays by making use of a standard MS-2
Key revisions include:
• All reclamation systems must undergo commissioning tests that
demonstrate disinfection performance is consistent with design intent.
• Velocity profiles have been eliminated as an option for transferring pilot
data to full-scale facility design.
• On-site MS-2 based viral assays are used for both the validation and
• A standard MS-2 dose-response curve is used to derive the reduction
• The design equation is based on the lower 75-percent prediction interval
for reclamation systems. The lower 90-percent prediction interval is used
for drinking water systems.
• Commissioning tests will require seven out of eight on-site measurements
exceeding the operational design equation.
• The addition of an appendix to illustrate the computations involved in the
application and evaluation of UV disinfection systems.
The third edition of the UV Guidelines was revised by Robert W. Emerick,
Ph.D., P.E., of Stantec Consulting Services, who was responsible for the
first permitted unfiltered drinking water UV disinfection facility in the
U.S. and continues to regularly design and troubleshoot reclamation-based UV
disinfection systems, and George Tchobanoglous, Ph.D., P.E., NAE, Professor
Emeritus at the University of California, Davis, who has authored or
coauthored over 350 publications on water and wastewater treatment and solid
waste management, including 13 textbooks and five engineering reference
The UV Guidelines are available to download at
BlueLight UV disinfection systems from Heraeus Amba Australia
Australia's Manufacturing, Industrial and Mining Directory
Heraeus Amba Australia presents BlueLight UV disinfection systems, a
range of operationally ready solutions for surface disinfection.
Disinfection of packaging materials using BlueLight UV radiation is an
economical solution, requiring very low capital and operating costs.
BlueLight UV disinfection systems consist of an air-cooled UV cassette
including electricity supply. The UV cassette is equipped with UV amalgam
lamps and emits an intensive cold UV radiation, which is especially suitable
for the disinfection of heat-sensitive packaging materials.
Key features of BlueLight UV disinfection systems:
• Compact design allows easy retrofit in existing filling and closing
• Several UV cassettes can be installed in parallel if higher UV dosage is
• Quartz window of the BlueLight UV module fitted with a patented breakage
detector for increased safety on production lines
• Disinfection action certified by Fraunhofer Institute for Process
Engineering and Packaging
August 3, 2012:
Trane Offers First Commercial Air Handler with a Standard Photocatalytic
Oxidation Air Cleaner
HVAC maker Trane, a brand of Ingersoll Rand, launched the industry's
first photocatalytic oxidation air cleaning system as a standard option for
cataloged air handling units.
The company's Catalytic Air Cleaning System (TCACS) is now a standard option
with the Performance Climate Changer air handler, to deliver cleaner air and
better indoor air quality while providing lower energy and maintenance costs
and environmental impact compared with conventional air cleaning solutions.
The solution is designed to be ideal for healthcare facilities, offices,
schools, airports, and other environments where indoor air quality is
The TCACS blends three technologies: particle filtration, ultraviolet
germicidal irradiation, and a photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) process. The
system provides three steps of air cleaning:
* MERV 13 or higher particle filters provide the first stage of contaminant
* Ultraviolet (UV) lights provide irradiation of the stationary surfaces
such as coils and drain pans to reduce the likelihood of growth of
* UV lights activate the catalyst on the media to enable the chemical
reaction to reduce the carbon-based contaminants in the airstream.
The air handlers feature energy recovery, airflow monitoring, and humidity
control options that improve the building environment and better control
temperature and humidity.
May 4, 2012:
SETi breaks barriers with UV-C LED efficiencies of over 10%
Bringing consumer disinfection markets within reach, SETi has
developed a completely new p-type region using doped transparent aluminium
gallium nitride. This, together with a transparent p-contact, significantly
increases extraction efficiencies
Sensor Electronic Technology, Inc (SETi) has achieved, what it says, are
record efficiencies of ultraviolet light (UV) LEDs operating in the
germicidal UV-C range.
UV Germicidal LED lamps with the power to disinfect
water, surfaces and air
Literature says that the UV-C range peaks at around 254nm although the
latest LEDs developed by SETi have been designed to emit at 278nm.
The firm's latest devices have an external quantum efficiency of 11% with a
corresponding wall-plug efficiency of 8%.
SETi says this is an "industry beating result". It was achieved under the
DARPA Compact Mid-Ultraviolet Technology (CMUVT) program and performed in
collaboration with Army Research Laboratories (ARL).
This latest development represents more than a five times improvement in
Traditionally, UV LEDs have been manufactured with GaN p-layers, due to the
difficulties of p-doping AlGaN materials. However, GaN absorbs wavelengths
shorter than 365nm, reducing the extraction efficiency of UV LEDs operating
at short wavelengths.
SETi has now developed a completely new p-type region using doped AlGaN,
which is transparent, even in the UVC range. This coupled with a transparent
p-contact significantly increases extraction efficiencies.
The firm has also enhanced its proprietary MEMOCVD growth process to reduce
dislocation densities in the quantum well structure of UV LEDs grown on
sapphire substrates. The company has demonstrated threading dislocation
densities of less than 2 x 108, as measured by TEM. This improvement leads
to a high internal quantum efficiency of 60%.
“This milestone is a very exciting development of UV LEDs, and represents a
major step forward in reaching efficiencies of incumbent technologies, such
as medium pressure mercury vapour lamps, which typically operate at
efficiencies of 15% or less,” notes Remis Gaska, President and CEO of SETi.
The 350µm x 350µm encapsulated LEDs were designed for emission at 278nm and
measured independently at ARL. SETi says the emission of 9.8mW at 20mA is
the highest value ever reported for an LED shorter than 365nm at this
forward current, and 30mW at 100mA. Details of the research will be
presented at CLEO 2012 meeting, San Jose, California.
SETi has previously reported LED based water treatment systems that
disinfect with over 4 log reduction drinking water flowing at 0.5 litres per
minute with less than 35mW of optical power at 275nm.
The results from this development put UV LED disinfection systems within the
reach of consumer markets for applications such as point of use water
BYU and UVU Students Use UV Power to Blast Away Bacteria
One in six cell phones have fecal bacteria growing on them.
In an effort to combat the filth growing on cell phones, BYU and UVU
students have teamed up to develop a device that would clean cell phones.
The device is called PhoneSoap, and works by emitting UV rays that kill
harmful bacteria that accumulates on cell phones.
While watching TV and hearing a report that cell phones have 18 times more
harmful bacteria than a public bathroom, Jordan Monroe, a junior from Idaho
studying entrepreneurship, was inspired to come up with a device that would
eliminate this threat.
“I’m a bit of a germaphobe, and so I started to wonder how I could fix
this,” Monroe said. “I originally wanted to develop a wipe, but people
didn’t want their phones to get wet.”
The idea seems practical as students do not clean their phones very often.
“I never really clean my phone because if I do, I figure I will damage it,”
said Leonard Yang, from Toronto, Canada.
The idea came as Monroe learned that UV light was often used at BYU to
sterilize lab equipment.
“We looked into whether or not UV rays would ruin phones and discovered that
they wouldn’t,” Monroe said. “Also, because we wanted to make the device
something people would use every day, we added a phone charging feature so
people would get into the habit of using it.”
The uniqueness of the idea also convinced others to get on board.
“When I heard about PhoneSoap, I got really excited. I definitely thought
this could be something big and called Jordan wondering if I could get
involved,” said Gabriel Villamizar, a senior from Venezuela studying
Intel chose Monroe, Villamizar and the rest of the PhoneSoap for a national
competition which is giving away $100,000. In order to qualify for the
finals, PhoneSoap needs to place fifth or better in the online voting
process taking place of Facebook.
Voting ends Feb. 20, and Monroe encourages students wanting to support
PhoneSoap to log onto Facebook and search for Intel Innovators. Once on the
page, students will need to search for the Pitchroom and find the video for
PhoneSoap. They can then click the application and invest up to 10,500
social capital points.
The product is due for sale in the BYU bookstore this September with retail
prices estimated between $39 and $49.
Tech Upgrades Improve Water Quality at Wastewater Plant
A number of new technology additions are helping the Rocky River
Wastewater Treatment Plant in Anderson, S.C., discharge cleaner and clearer
water back into the environment.
Last fall, the facility replaced its old chlorine water disinfection process
with an ultraviolet (UV) light system. In addition, in order to meet
environmental regulations, the plant also began removing phosphorus from the
water by using sand filters and expanded its daily treatment capacity by 3.4
million gallons per day.
Jeff Caldwell, utilities director for Anderson, said the uptick in water
quality is obvious to anyone watching the water come off the plant’s cascade
into the receiving stream.
“You can tell a physical difference,” Caldwell said. “It’s a much cleaner
and clearer quality of water, but as far as the nutrients that are dissolved
in that water, other than the phosphorus, that hasn’t changed.”
Wastewater comes in the Rocky River plant and is sent to a primary clarifier
where heavy solids are sifted out. Then it heads to a trickling filter to
remove further pollutants using microorganisms, then over to rotating
biological contactors, which remove dissolved and suspended biological
matter. After that, the water is sent through a final clarifier before it’s
To remove the phosphorus, however, the facility added another step prior to
the final clarifier, where a chemical mixture called Alum is introduced that
binds the lighter particles together, so they get heavier and settle out.
The water then heads to a sand filter, which gets rid of the finer particles
that weren’t removed.
The project cost approximately $30 million and took two years to complete.
The work took place while the plant was in operation, so it was done in a
phased approach that resulted in a setup of equipment being brought online
before older components were taken down.
But in a time of budget shortfalls, why make the move to a UV system,
particularly if chlorine is cheaper to use and has been used successfully at
the plant for years?
Caldwell explained that since the equipment at Rocky River was due for an
upgrade to its chlorine equipment anyway, the city compared chemical costs
against power use and once transportation and storage for chlorine factored
in, the choice became a no-brainer.
“Throw in the risk component of having several one-ton chlorine cylinders
onsite and having to truck them through our city streets … eliminating that
risk to our employees and citizens is what put it over the top and made it a
more effective solution for us,” he said.
In addition to environmental and safety benefits, the new process also makes
things a little easier on workers. Using chlorine, workers took a sample of
water and from that, determined what dosage level of the chemical was needed
to disinfect the water.
UV is a little different. The amount of UV that goes into the water depends
on the flow. As the water passes through the channel where the UV lights are
located, it’ll sense whether the water is degraded at all and automatically
turn on more lights to disinfect based on the need. So while workers still
need to remain attentive, the system is more reactive to the flow and the
water coming to it than the chlorine process was.
The added bonus is now employees won’t have huge chlorine cylinders to deal
with or a concern over potential leaks and the health impacts that could
result. While UV rays are dangerous, Caldwell said the risk of UV exposure
is minor, as long as the bulbs are kept at an appropriate depth underwater.
He added that the improvements made to separate phosphorus will also allow
the plant to limit the amount of nitrogen that can be in the water, should
regulators impose any future mandates.
Fort Payne water goes ultraviolet
Water purification is looked at in a different light in Fort Payne.
The Fort Payne Water Department recently completed a $6.5 million upgrade
and rehabilitation to its water treatment facility and became the first
municipality in the state to install an ultraviolet disinfection process.
"We're absolutely excited about this," said Paul Nail, general manager. "We
spent $6.5 million to make sure the citizens of Fort Payne are protected. We
feel like we have the best and safest water in the state."
In 2008, the Environmental Protection Agency set new water quality
standards, which went into effect Jan. 1. The new regulations required Fort
Payne Water Department to consider alternatives to its water treatment
"When we got the 2012 regulations for treating surface water, we started
looking at ways to meet those mandates," Nail said. "We researched it for
several years and settled on three things."
Nail said department workers replaced its outdated settling basins. The
basins were built in 1969 and weren't functioning at peak capacity because
of age. Nail said clarifiers were added to replace the settling basins and a
building was built around them to protect the clarifiers from the elements.
As surface water comes into the water treatment facility, it passes through
the clarifiers first. Nail said the clarifiers basically condition the water
for further treatment.
After leaving the clarifiers, water then moves through the facility's new
granular activated carbon filters. Nail said the GAC helps with the taste
and odor of the water by removing contaminants and chemicals from the water.
The GAC filters also prevent changes in water quality from seasonal turnover
of surface water. When the weather begins to turn cold, the water on the
surface of rivers and lakes becomes cooler and sinks to the bottom. The
warmer water on the bottom then rises to the surface. When the water begins
to cycle, it stirs up sediment on the bottom which can cause changes in odor
and taste in treated water.
After passing through the GAC filters, the water moves through a new
ultraviolet light treatment process. UV disinfection is still fairly
uncommon in the U.S., but is widely used in Europe. Fort Payne is the first
municipality in the state to install a UV treatment process.
Ultraviolet light is highly effective at eliminating risk from protozoa and
bacteria that are too small to be eliminated by filtering water.
"The UV takes care of biologics like cryptosporidium," Nail said. "There was
a cryptosporidium outbreak [in 1993] in Milwaukee, Wis., that ended up
killing a lot of people. We want to protect the people of Fort Payne from
things like that."
Nail said the technology incorporated at Fort Payne's water treatment
facility is top notch and should meet any future mandates from the EPA. He
also said the capacity of the facility is more than adequate to meet the
future demands of the city. Currently the facility processes about 3.4
million gallons of water a day, but is capable of treating up to 9 million
gallons per day.
Asahi Kasei acquires UVC LEDs Maker Crystal IS
On 28 December 2011, Japan-based diversified industrial enterprise
Asahi Kasei Group acquired Crystal IS Inc of Green Island, NY, USA, which
develops single-crystal aluminum nitride (AlN) substrates and ultraviolet
light-emitting diodes (UVC LEDs) based on them.
The Asahi Kasei Group is currently advancing ‘For Tomorrow’ projects in the
fields of the environment & energy, residential living, and health care, for
the creation of new businesses under its ‘For Tomorrow 2015’ mid-term
management initiative. A key focus of the Environment & Energy for Tomorrow
project is the development of technology to create new business with
compound semiconductor devices that complement Asahi Kasei’s established
gallium arsenide (GaAs)-based Hall-effect devices, infrared sensors, and
magnetic resistance devices.
Since being spun off from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy,
NY, USA in 1997, Crystal IS has been working in development mode for more
than ten years, with a history of early support from RPI as well as
continued support from both regional and US government. Venture funding in
2004 and 2006 from ARCH Venture Partners, Lux Capital, the Credit Suisse/New
York State Common Retirement Fund and Harris & Harris Group, helped the firm
to scale up development.
As one element of its Environment and Energy for Tomorrow project, in July
2010 Asahi Kasei purchased shares in Crystal IS, and the two firms began the
joint development of process technology for manufacturing AlN substrates.
Recent collaborative and strategic support from Asahi Kasei Group as well as
China’s San’an Optoelectronics Company Ltd propelled it to its current level
of operation. Crystal IS currently has 25 staff.
Crystal IS had been exploring its options for commercializing the AlN-based
UV LEDs that it had developed, which feature exceptionally short wavelength
as well as what’s claimed to be world-leading efficiency and service life.
As well as having high thermal conductivity and excellent tolerance to high
voltage, AlN absorbs and emits short-wavelength UV light, which has an
bactericidal effect. UV LEDs featuring smaller size, lighter weight, longer
service life and energy conservation can therefore facilitate the
development of portable disinfection equipment and other new applications.
However, difficulty in growing AlN in pure crystal form has hindered
high-volume commercial production.
Crystal IS’ technology was judged to be a good fit with Asahi Kasei’s
thin-film device technology, which can provide a base for the further
expansion of compound semiconductor operations, while both firms share a
common vision for the development of the UV LED sector. Asahi Kasei adds
that the acquisition enables combination of the technologies of Asahi Kasei
and Crystal IS, as well as marking its entry into the UV LED market and
providing a foundation for further developments in energy-conserving
Asahi Kasei reckons that having Crystal IS as a subsidiary will enable not
only the early commercialization of technology to grow single-crystal AlN
substrates but also, through a combination of the two firms’ technologies,
the early commercialization of UV LED devices which are expected to meet
growing demand. “The advances in solid-state UVC technology accomplished by
Crystal IS will allow for clean and safe disinfection to be introduced into
water, air and surface applications in multiple markets,” says Masafumi
Nakao, general manager of Asahi Kasei’s Advanced Devices and Sensor Systems
Development Center. In addition, further developments will be explored for
the application of AlN technology to other energy-conserving devices.
Crystal IS reckons that, while continuing to be based in New York State, as
a subsidiary of Asahi Kasei it will be able to accelerate commercialization
of its UVC LEDs, leveraging Asahi Kasei’s strength’s in product engineering
and manufacturing excellence. The company will organize around its
respective strengths, with R&D fundamentals and entrepreneurial business
development managed from Crystal IS, and product engineering and
manufacturing excellence being led by Asahi Kasei.
“Our record LED performance in development has brought interest from global
customers and we are eager to create a high-quality product to meet their
needs,” says Crystal IS’ CEO & president Dr Steven Berger. “We recognize
Asahi Kasei Group’s strength as a successful developer and manufacturer of
compound semiconductor devices and are confident that their support will
ensure a timely and quality launch of our UVC LED business in the global
marketplace,” he adds.
“I am pleased that this ground-breaking technology platform is moving
forward into the next phase of growth,” comments Crystal IS’ co-founder &
chief technology officer Leo Schowalter. “We are pleased to be part of a
growing high-tech area focused on advanced materials, life science,
cleantech and energy,” he adds. “We will continue our tradition of
innovation and excellence, while also accelerating global business growth
with our new owner.”
Berson supplies UV disinfection technology to Ukraine
Filtration + Separation
UV specialist Berson has supplied two of its InLine+ UV disinfection
systems to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in the city of Chernihiv to
the north-east of Kiev.
The Berson UV systems will disinfect effluent prior to its discharge into
the Desna River.
“Disinfection is necessary to meet Ukrainian bathing water standards and
also to prevent effluent with high microbial loads of pathogenic viruses,
parasites and bacteria entering the Desna River, which is also the main
water supply for many communities downstream, including Kiev,” said
Chernihiv’s waterworks director, Sergey Shkin.
“Chemical disinfection with chlorine was not an option as we wanted to avoid
unpleasant disinfection by-products such as trihalomethanes (THMs) and
halogenated acetic acids (HAAs), which are produced when chlorine reacts
with the organic compounds in wastewater,” he said.
UV disinfection is completely chemical-free, and produces no unpleasant
The Chernihiv waterworks selected two Berson InLine 16000 systems, operating
in parallel mode. Each UV chamber is equipped with 12 automatically-wiped
medium pressure Multiwave UV lamps and can treat effluent at a flow rate of
2000 m3/h (4000 m3/h in total). Because of the InLine design of the closed
treatment chambers, they have low headloss and are also compact with a small
SETi prepares high-volume manufacturing of UV LEDs
Sensor Electronic Technology Inc (SETi) of Columbia, SC, USA has put in
motion an expansion plan to both expand its R&D efforts and to transition its
production line to high-volume manufacturing, making it what it claims is the
first high-volume supplier of ultraviolet (UV) LEDs shorter than 365nm,
initially scaling to supply quantities of more than 100 million LEDs per year.
SETi says it was first to market with short-wavelength UV LEDs in 2004 and has
since supplier a portfolio of LEDs and high-power LED lamps from 240nm to 355nm.
SETi currently operates a 15,000ft2 ISO9001-certified facility, where it runs a
vertically integrated R&D and small-volume production line with epitaxial
growth, chip fab, packaging and test and analysis, plus a prototyping line for
integration of its LEDs into complete systems.
The first phase of the expansion, which is currently underway, involves
retrofitting this facility to 20,000ft2 and converting it into the firm’s R&D
center. The expansion in this facility will be focused predominantly around
additional cleanroom space for chip fab and device packaging, where new mask
designs, processing techniques and packaging solutions will be developed to
further improve the performance of SETi’s UVTOP and UVClean devices and to
ensure that SETi maintains its position in the UV LED market.
SETi recently closed on the purchase of a new property, where it will focus its
high-volume manufacturing lines. The firm’s growth plans include expansion of
this new facility to 130,000ft2. Initially, it will house SETi’s proprietary
production metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) reactors, where the
company will focus on the high-volume manufacturing of its migration-enhanced
MOCVD (MEMOCVD) process that will be used for the scale up in volume of its UV
LEDs and a new Engineering Center for the development of new applications and
the production of custom solutions.
Xylem's WEDECO Spektron UV Systems launched With Widest Validation For
Drinking Water Norms, Meeting Needs Of Small And Mid-Sized Drinking Water
Xylem Inc., the global water solutions business that this week spun off from
ITT Corporation, has announced advanced features to its WEDECO Spektron
ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection product range. The upgrades to the closed
vessel UV reactors are aimed at the municipal drinking water market for flows of
a few cubic meters per hour (m³/h) to more than 1,000 m³/h.
All Spektron units will be rolled out as they earn DVGW/ ÖNORM certification,
and CE and UL registration. In addition, a range of units will also be validated
under full compliance to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Ultraviolet
Disinfection Guidance Manual (UVDGM 2006). The entire series is expected to be
fully validated by mid-2012.
"The Spektron series is designed to meet all common disinfection requirements
including 3-log Cryptosporidum reduction," said Mike Newberry, product manager
for Xylem's WEDECO UV systems. "And since it will be evaluated to all norms, it
will fit any legal requirements for drinking water."
The new Spektron units will be equipped with WEDECO's latest ECORAY UV lamp and
ballast technology. In combination with the option of variable power output
control, they feature excellent energy efficiency under all operating
conditions. While in dim mode, the ECORAY lamps realize energy savings of up to
20 per cent of the energy and use up to 80 per cent less mercury than the
previous lamp generation. With respect to sustainability, the UV lamp's power
savings translate to a carbon dioxide reduction of up to 500 kg per lamp over
the lamp's life cycle.
In addition, now all of the Spektron units can be ordered with an automatic
wiping system and will have improved hydraulics conditions inside the reactor.
Whilst the smaller units will continue to be equipped with WEDECO's CrossMix
module, the larger units will have the newly developed OptiCone installed. This
patent pending flow diverter ensures optimal hydraulic conditions inside the
reactor under all inlet piping configurations. The excellent performance of the
units will be continuously monitored by an ÖNORM compliant UV sensor that
fulfils reference sensor requirements.