UV News Note: These UV news items have been gleaned from the Internet and
IUVA website. The UV news are partially reproduced as found. AAW takes no responsibility for their
accuracy. The links to the full UV articles were active at the time of posting.
UV Articles 2007
Halo Technologies Introduces The World's Only Germ-Killing Vacuum
The Halo™ UV-ST Ultraviolet Vacuum Uses Ultraviolet Light and HEPA
Filtration to Attack Unseen Household Microbes Without Harsh Chemicals
CHARLOTTE, NC — The Halo UV-ST is a new chemical-free vacuum — the only one
of its kind — that combines powerful pick-up and ultraviolet technology to
clean dirt and kill germs that lurk and thrive in carpets, including dust
mites, molds, viruses and bacteria, even MRSA.
Carpets — which are rarely, if ever, disinfected — cover more than 70
percent of floor space in homes and contain the highest concentration of
invisible germs and allergens. A typical carpet harbors more than 100,000
dust mites per square yard; these dust mites are the number one indoor cause
of allergies. Ultraviolet light in the "C" spectrum (UV-C) disables the DNA
of these household pests, destroying their ability to multiply. The Halo
UV-ST contains a UV-C bulb chamber at the bottom of the unit. Activating the
ultraviolet technology while running the vacuum over carpets, instantly
kills germs living between the fibers.
Ultraviolet light technology has been used for more than 60 years to purify
drinking water and sterilize operating rooms and medical instruments.
Independent researchers have tested and proven the efficacy of the
germ-killing benefits in the Halo UV-ST.
"The Halo UV-ST is more than a high-performing traditional vacuum cleaner;
it's the next generation in home cleaning. We've all disinfected other areas
of our home for years. Now our Halo Ultraviolet Vacuums allow you to achieve
that same level of clean in your carpeting without any extra effort and
without using any harmful chemicals," said Ken Garcia, CEO of Halo
Technologies, Inc. "This product will change the lives of allergy and asthma
sufferers, parents with young children, pet owners and anyone that wants a
cleaner, greener home."
The Halo HEPA filter provides the highest level of air filtration available
and is comparable to the quality level used by the military in fighter
planes. The new soft-top model is equipped with special features that
optimize the vacuum's breakthrough technology, including: versatile
attachments for easy access to hard-to-reach places, an extra-long 31-foot
power cord, and a height adjuster to accommodate various surfaces, including
tile and wood. The UV-ST has a 14-inch cleaning path and two powerful
motors, yet it only weighs 16.8 pounds.
Clean Air in the Arctic Circle thanks to ozone-generating UV Lamps
Ozone Generating Lamps Eliminate Odours in Finnish, Santa Theme Park
Every year in the time running up to Christmas, Santa is visited by many
children and their parents in the Santa Park theme park close to the Arctic
Circle in Lapland/Finland. Santa Park is housed in a mountain and, in a
large central hall, the visitors are entertained by a number of activities.
For example, elves learn in a school how to prepare and pack the children’s
presents; in an ice gallery, visitors can marvel at many animals sculpted in
ice; and, being Finland, there is naturally an ice bar, where cocktails can
be enjoyed in ice glasses at the bar on an imaginary beach.
The Santa Park is open only once a year during advent. During the rest of
the year the site is shut. Consequently, moulds are formed as well as
associated unpleasant smells and these are controlled by means of UV lamps
from Heraeus Noblelight.
The physical method UV radiation is an economical and environmentally
friendly alternative to chemical treatments. By using special Heraeus UV
lamps ozone is generated from the oxygen in the environmental air. To do
this, the emitted wavelength of 185nm is used. The longer wavelength of 254
nm photolysis the ozone to excited oxygen, which oxidises the long chain
The company BonAir manufactures and sells ozone-generating equipment in
Finland and this equipment is fitted out with UV lamps from Heraeus
Noblelight. The systems are fitted with four ozone-generating, U-shaped 120
Watt lamps. The capacity of the large BonAir Ozonator allows the generation
of 64 grammes of ozone per hour.
This system has been used to treat the 35,000 cubic metres of air in the
tunnel system and the main hall at Santa Park, which has been treated two
and half days. In addition, three smaller pieces of equipment are also used
with a capacity of 3.2 gramme of ozone per hour. Finally, 300 metre long
channels of the air conditioning system were supplied with ozone-containing
air for six hours.
“The end result was fantastic. I destroyed all the mould and at the end
there was no trace of the previous bad smells!” commented Raimo Vartiainen,
managing director of BonAir in Finland. When the project was finished, Santa
himself thanked Raimo Vartiainen and his wife personally.
Following on from the development of UV lamp technology by Richard Küch in
1904, Heraeus Noblelight can look back on over 100 years experience in the
development, production and application of UV lamps. Through innovations
such as Longlife technology Heraeus continues to set milestones in lamp
technology to increase the productivity of industrial processes. Heraeus
Noblelight is the original equipment manufacturer and preferred partner of
system builders providing equipment for the disinfection of water, air and
surfaces, as well as for industrial photochemical processes and oxidation.
Alternatives to the bottled water
In 2006, bottled water sales worldwide totaled 164 billion liters, 7 percent
of which was sold in Latin America, and half of that in Mexico.
One alternative to bottled water is solar water disinfection, a clean and
cheap technology used to disinfect water in the home, created by Lebanese
scientist Aftim Acra. The treatment consists of filling transparent plastic
water bottles and leaving them out in the sun.
The heat and ultraviolet rays disinfect the water in six hours of
sunlight or two full days under cloud cover, after which the water is safe
The SODIS Foundation, named after the initials for this technology and based
in Cochabamba, Bolivia, is promoting this system also in Ecuador, El
Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Peru.
Ultraviolet Lighting During Orthopedic Surgery and the Rate of Infection
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (American).
The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
Merrill A. Ritter, MD*, Emily M. Olberding, BS* and Robert A. Malinzak,
* The Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis Hospital—Mooresville, 1199
Hadley Road, Mooresville, IN 46158. E-mail address for M.A. Ritter:
Investigation performed at the Center for Hip and Knee Surgery, St. Francis
Hospital—Mooresville, Mooresville, Indiana
Disclosure: The authors did not receive any outside funding or grants in
support of their research for or preparation of this work. Neither they nor a
member of their immediate families received payments or other benefits or a
commitment or agreement to provide such benefits from a commercial entity. No
commercial entity paid or directed, or agreed to pay or direct, any benefits
to any research fund, foundation, division, center, clinical practice, or
other charitable or nonprofit organization with which the authors, or a member
of their immediate families, are affiliated or associated.
Background: Ultraviolet lighting is an alternative to laminar airflow in
the operating room that may be as effective for lowering the number of
environmental bacteria and possibly lowering infection rates by killing the
bacteria rather than simply reducing the number at the operative site. The
purpose of the present study was to compare the infection rates following
joint replacement procedures performed by one orthopaedic surgeon with and
without the use of ultraviolet lighting.
Methods: From July 1986 to July 2005, one surgeon performed 5,980 total joint
replacements at one facility. In September 1991, ultraviolet lighting was
installed in the operating rooms. All procedures that were performed before
the installation of the ultraviolet lighting utilized horizontal laminar
airflow, whereas all procedures that were performed after that date utilized
ultraviolet lighting without laminar airflow. Factors associated with the rate
of infection were analyzed.
Results: Over a nineteen-year period, forty-seven infections occurred
following 5,980 joint replacements. The infection rate without ultraviolet
lighting (and with laminar airflow) was 1.77%, and the infection rate with
ultraviolet lighting was 0.57% (p < 0.0001). The odds of infection were 3.1
times greater for procedures performed without ultraviolet lighting (and with
laminar airflow) as compared with those performed with only ultraviolet
lighting (p < 0.0001). The infection rate associated with total hip
replacement decreased from 1.03% to 0.72% (p = 0.5407), and the infection rate
associated with total knee replacement decreased from 2.20% to 0.50% (p <
0.0001). Revision surgery, previous infection, age, total body mass index, use
of cement, disease, and diagnosis were not associated with an elevated
Conclusion: When appropriate safety precautions are taken, ultraviolet
lighting appears to be an effective way to lower the risk of infection in the
operating room during total joint replacement surgery.
Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions to Authors for a
complete description of levels of evidence.
Reposted with permission from Rights Department, The Journal of Bone and
Copyright 2007 The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Inc.
Rialto, UV rays treat water
San Bernardino Sun ~ SBSun.com ~ Jason Pesick
RIALTO - Before it's served to customers, all the water treated at the West
Valley Water District's Oliver P. Roemer Water Filtration Facility runs
through one of three disinfection tubes. But there's no chlorine or other
chemicals in the tubes - just light.
West Valley is one of the first water purveyors in the state to treat water by
zapping it with ultraviolet light.
"The UV is emerging technology for drinking water," said Ken Sikorski, West
Valley's superintendent and chief operator.
Shining light on water might seem a fruitless cleaning method, but ultraviolet
light disrupts the DNA of organisms in the water.
West Valley officials are waiting for state permits so they can ramp up their
usage of the UV reactors, which cost about $400,000 each, so they can use less
chlorine at the Roemer facility. All the water treated at the plant already
runs through the UV reactors on top of undergoing the standard treatment
Though it takes more energy to run a UV system than dosing water with
chlorine, which the plant generates on-site, there are no byproducts. Chlorine
produces leftover disinfection byproducts, which are carcinogens and can be
harmful to people.
West Valley can't eliminate all the chlorine from its treatment process,
however. Chlorine and UV rays each work better against different types of
organisms. But Sikorski said the UV system will allow the plant to cut its
chlorine use to a third of its current level. "You have to use them in
combination," he said.
Whether it's done by light, chemical or both, disinfection is only one part of
the overall treatment process.
Roemer, which opened in 1995, can treat 14.4 million gallons of water a day.
The water comes in from Lytle Creek and the State Water Project and then makes
its way to pretreatment. During pretreatment, the plant removes 80 percent of
the solids in the water, Sikorski said.
Then the state water and the water from Lytle Creek are blended together
before being filtered and disinfected. After being sent to another reservoir
to sit for a few more hours, it moves on to customers around northern Rialto
UV treatment is gaining in popularity among sewage treatment plants in
addition to water treatment plants, said Kurt Berchtold, assistant executive
officer of the Santa Ana Regional Water Quality Control Board.
"Chlorine is a very hazardous chemical, so there are significant dangers and
risks associated just with having tanks of that around."
Heraeus Noblelight Presents a New Generation of Ozone Generating UV Lamps at
the IOA/IUVA World Congress
Heraeus Noblelight is exhibiting at the congress of the International Ozone
Association and the International Ultraviolet Association. Two Papers from
Heraeus Experts will be presented at the IOA/IUVA World Congress 2007: “New
Generation of Ozone Generating Low Pressure Lamps”; and “Measurements of
Ozone Generating Low Pressure Lamps”
For the first time, the synergies and the applications of ozone and
ultraviolet light (UV) will be discussed and evaluated at the same
conference. The “International Ozone Association” (IOA) and the
“International Ultraviolet Association” (IUVA) are together organising an
international congress, which will take place from the 27 to 29 August in
Los Angeles, USA. As a manufacturer of UV lamps, Heraeus Noblelight is a
member of the IUVA and will be showing specialist light sources for the
treatment of water, air and surfaces at the event. Two experts from the lamp
manufacturer will present papers on ozone-generating lamps to the specialist
audience: Dr Alexander Voronov, from Heraeus Research and Development will
introduce a new generation of ozone-generating low pressure lamps; Dr Ralf
Dreiskemper, manager of the Heraeus Measurement will talk on the subject of
measurement of ozone-generating lamps.
New Generation of Ozone-Generating Low Pressure Lamps
Ozone production using low pressure lamps is a well-known process, whose
full potential has still not been fully realised. By using special Heraeus
UV lamps, ozone is produced from the oxygen in ambient air, by using the
emitted radiation at a wavelength of 185 nanometers. Today, the challenges
for UV lamps lie in significantly increasing efficiency at 185 nanometers,
ensuring the consistency of the UV output over the operating life and
extending lamp life.
With the introduction of the unique Heraeus Longlife coating, which was
optimised for application at 185nm and ensures minimum losses, Heraeus
Noblelight has developed a new generation of UV lamps. As a result, low
pressure lamps have become an efficient and reliable vacuum UV light source,
which can be used effectively in many ozone-generating applications. In
addition, this Heraeus long-life coating significantly extends the life of
These lamps are matched with individual applications and are already finding
application in water oxidisation and air treatment, such as the break down
of greases and odours. In his paper, Dr Voronov will introduce various
coating technologies and compare the emission and power loss at 185nm. He
will present the parameters of the new generation of ozone-generating lamps
and will demonstrate a simple model to allow practical calculation of the
ozone concentration in an air flow for emission wavelengths of 185nm and
254nm. The combination of “Ozone and UV radiation” in a single lamp opens up
new areas of application in air treatment and exhaust air treatment, for
example in the destruction of VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) and in
applications in “Advanced Oxidation”.
Measurements of Ozone-Generating Lamps
Lamp manufacturers have to carry out reliable lamp measurements to be able
to specify product properties, technical data and operating life
performance. For this reason, Heraeus Noblelight operates a modern and
independent measurement laboratory, which is accredited to DIN EN ISO/IEC
There are very few standard measuring procedures specifically for Vacuum UV
and UVC lamps, which make comparisons between different products difficult.
Furthermore, measurement data from system manufacturers is called upon as a
basis for the design and development of new, more efficient systems. Lamp
measurement results can be interpreted correctly only when taking
measurement uncertainties into consideration. Incorrect interpretation of
this data can possibly lead to wrongly dimensioned equipment drawings and
Dr Ralf Dreiskemper is in charge of the Measurement laboratory at Heraeus
Noblelight and, in his presentation to the IUVA, he will provide a brief
overview on the range of conventional measurements of UVC low pressure lamps
at 254nm and on the source and extent of measurement uncertainties.
Radiometric measurements at wavelengths below 200nm, for example for
ozone-generating lamps, are much more difficult. Some additional parameter
must be taken into consideration. Radiation at 185 nm is strongly absorbed
by the surrounding atmosphere. The absorption of radiation also influences
measurements at 254nm to an unknown degree. Consequently, the simultaneous
measurement of radiation at 185nm and 254 nm must be carried out in an inert
gas or under vacuum in a sealed chamber. At the same time, different cooling
conditions affect the intensity of the UV lamps and must be taken into
Together with his team, Dr Dreiskemper has developed a measuring procedure
which provides for reproducible results and will present previously obtained
data at the Los Angeles congress.
UV replaces chlorine as disinfectant at AL plant
SCOTTSBORO, AL - The Alabama Department of Environmental Management
completed its inspection of the Scottsboro Water, Sewer & Gas Board’s
drinking water treatment plant and sewer lines on August 2 and is expected
to sign off on the improvements, according to an August 7 article in The
The department recently completed a $1.3 million upgrade to its water
treatment plant. It also just completed a $929,000 sewer improvement
The two projects were part of the department’s five-year plan to improve the
reliability and quality of its drinking water and wastewater systems, the
Roy Light, the department’s general manager, said in the article that a
recent upgrade to wastewater treatment facilities included the addition of a
new screening system, replacement of corroded pipes, and the switch from
chlorine to ultraviolet light for disinfection.
New UV Disinfection System For Industrial Process Water
Process and Control Today /PandCT.com/
Designed for process water disinfection in industries such as food, beverage
and pharmaceutical manufacturing, Aquionics' new AF3 amalgam UV disinfection
system offers a high microbial kill rate with low power consumption and low
hydraulic pressure drop. Designed using CFD modelling tools, it is extremely
flexible and can be installed either horizontally or vertically.
The AF3's unique configuration produces an axial flow through an L-shaped,
elongated treatment chamber, increasing residency time and improving
disinfection performance. It can treat flow rates of up to 265 gallons/hour
With a life of up to 16,000 hours, the system's UV lamps produce up to three
times the UV output of standard mercury low pressure lamps. A key feature of
the lamps is their ability to operate at temperatures up to 104oF (40oC),
compared to 64oF (18oC) for conventional low pressure lamps, without any
significant loss of germicidal output and efficiency.
The AF3 also uses fewer UV lamps and less electrical power to generate a
given UV output compared to conventional low pressure UV technology.
Optimized for the delivery of drinking water disinfection doses, the
germicidal performance of the AF3 is of the highest standard, satisfying
international regulatory requirements.
To ensure the AF3 integrates simply and effectively with a variety of
installation requirements, three levels of control are available, all with
outputs linkable to building management or SCADA systems. Combining a
microprocessor-based control system with an "intelligent" electronic
ballast, the system's Electron controller provides a versatile combination
of controls, alarms and clear indicators.
An optional UV monitor allows constant measurement of UV intensity delivered
by the lamp, displayed on the Electron controller's screen as a percentage.
Intensity output can also be linked to the plant SCADA system.
A version of the AF3 built to cGMP requirements for pharmaceutical and
sanitary applications is also available. Constructed using highly polished
stainless steel with FDA approved seals, all welds are full penetration and
'bug trap' free. Tri-clamp connections also make it simple to disassemble
and verify cleanliness.
Aquionics (www.aquionics.com), a Halma Company, is a market leader in the
manufacture, application and development of UV technology for progressive,
non-chemical disinfection and microbiological control. The company’s systems
are used in a wide variety of applications including food, beverage,
pharmaceutical and semiconductor manufacturing.
Hanovia Appoints Chinese UV Applications Specialist
Process and Control Today /PandCT.com/
British UV disinfection company Hanovia has expanded its presence in China
by appointing a Chinese Applications Specialist.
Dr Violet Feng, PhD, will support Hanovia's Chinese sales team in defining
the correct product configurations for UV disinfection applications, as well
as evaluating test results to ensure the company's product offerings are
correctly matched to customers' requirements. In addition, Dr Feng will
undertake original research with a number of Chinese universities on UV
kinetics and their application in reducing TOC (total organic carbon) in
water treatment systems for high purity applications such as semiconductor
and electronics manufacturing, and for photochemical applications such as
chlorine removal, chloramine and ozone destruction. Finally, she will also
help with preparation of sales and marketing support material.
A graduate of Fudan University in Shanghai, Dr Feng obtained a PhD in
Physical Electronics in January 2006. Her research involved developing new
types of UV light sources for environmental protection applications. She
designed and developed new excimer UV lamps and successfully used them to
degrade organic compounds in water, and toxic gas from air. As part of her
research she published ten scientific papers in national authoritative
After graduation she worked for PerkinElmer (Shenzhen) Ltd as a Senior
Development engineer in its Centre of Excellence Department, mainly in the
development of flash lamps.
A highly qualified, dedicated individual, Dr Feng brings valuable scientific
expertise to Hanovia which will ensure the company maintains its position as
a leader in UV technology applications.
WaterPure International Appoints Atmospheric Water Generator Distributor for
the Indiana, Ohio and Kentucky Tri-State Region
WaterPure International, Inc. (OTCBB:WPUR) announced today the appointment
of Midwest Future Technology, LLC as its Master Distributor for the
Company's atmospheric water generator (AWG) products in the Indiana, Ohio
and Kentucky region.
About The WaterPure Atmospheric Water Generator
The WaterPure Atmospheric Water Generator extracts moisture from the
atmosphere through a condensation process and transforms it into absolutely
pure, healthy drinking water. Multiple air and water filtration systems
remove particulate matter smaller than .01 microns. Utilizing high intensity
UV (ultra violet), it eliminates any microorganisms including bacteria and
viruses. Test results of WaterPure water measured 99.9% purity, far
exceeding EPA requirements. Operating on standard 110v power in the USA, it
is extremely efficient and uses a minimal amount of energy to produce water.
Depending on local electricity costs, a gallon of WaterPure water costs
about 8 cents to produce. The unit requires no plumbing, water lines, or
pipes and is easily installed. Driven by a microcomputer control system, it
will stop generating water when full. The WaterPure purification system
employs special filters to remove any unpleasant tastes or odor that may be
present in the air. The result is fresh and delicious drinking water in its
State gives FPUD green light to pursue UV treatment
After getting a blessing from state officials, the Fallbrook Public Utility
District (FPUD) will pursue its plans to build an ultraviolet treatment
plant at Red Mountain Reservoir.
For 22 years, the district has used the 440-million-gallon reservoir –
tucked away on Mission Road – both on a daily basis and as an emergency
Its massive 22-acre surface is not covered. But FPUD has never had a water
quality problem with it. In fact, Red Mountain has an exemplary record of
operation and has exceeded Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
But new EPA rules require all open reservoirs to be fitted with covers, or
equipped with treatment plants by the year 2012. The UV treatment system,
estimated to cost $3 million to $5 million, will be a huge savings over the
$15 million to $20 million the district thought it would have to spend to
build a conventional water treatment facility to meet the new standards.
“UV treatment is cutting-edge, very safe, much cheaper and quite a bit
faster than the old-fashioned method of building a filtration plant and then
pushing the water through,” said General Manager Keith Lewinger. Zapping the
water with ultraviolet light will kill any pathogens that could be present
in the water. FPUD’s water flowing into Red Mountain Reservoir is already
treated before it arrives in Fallbrook, at the Lake Skinner Filtration Plant
And Red Mountain’s water quality has always met or exceeded stringent state
and federal standards. The UV treatment technique received the first of
several needed approvals last month from the California Health and Human
Services Agency. FPUD will be budgeting construction money for the process
with a goal of beginning construction in 2008. The system is already in its
preliminary design phase.
FPUD will be the first water district in the state to use the technology to
meet the new EPA regulations. The new technique won’t harm the mineral
balance of the water nor will it noticeably affect the taste of FPUD tap
water to the average customer, although it could reduce some of the
contaminants that affect the taste.
The new EPA ruling was put in place as an additional cautionary measure so
that water leaving a reservoir is treated one final time before being
delivered to customers’ taps.
Stringent Legislation To Catalyse Strong Growth Of The European Water And
Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market
May 29, 2007, Business Wire
Research and Markets (http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/c58335) has
announced the addition of the new Frost & Sullivan Report "European Water
and Wastewater Disinfection Systems Markets" to their offering.
This Frost & Sullivan research service titled European Water and Wastewater
Disinfection Systems Market provides a comprehensive analysis of this market
and examines its major trends. It identifies the factors aiding growth in
this market at present and examines the technologies, end users and regions
that are contributing the most towards market revenues.
Stringent Legislation to Catalyse Strong Growth of the European Water and
Wastewater Disinfection Systems Market
"Growing concerns about the harmful effects of bacteriological contamination
in Europe are driving strong interest in water and wastewater disinfection
technologies," says the analyst of this research service. "In the municipal
sector, in particular, the European Union (EU) has introduced several
legislations to enforce the compulsory disinfection of water and
wastewater." Regulations such as the EU Drinking Water Directive (98/83/EC)
and the Bathing Water Directive (Council Directive 76/160/EEC) aim to
control the quality of water supplied at the point of domestic use and the
quality of bathing water, respectively. In the industrial sector, the robust
growth of key sectors such as pharmaceuticals has led to increasing demand
for high purity water free from bacteriological contamination. This has
influenced advanced disinfection technologies such as UV and ozone, which
have thrived on their quality of a chemical-free disinfection process. In
addition, the accession of more member states to the EU is likely to offer
opportunities in new and promising markets. The ongoing implementation of EU
Directives in the Central and Eastern European region and the recent trend
of rapid industrial growth are bound to offer substantial growth
opportunities to disinfection companies particularly in the medium to the
The municipal water disinfection sub-segment has traditionally been the
strongest application segment for disinfection technologies. However, with
relatively high levels of saturation in this sector, the municipal
wastewater disinfection segment has experienced a rise in its revenue share
and accounted for approximately 12.0 percent of the overall market. Driven
by the legislative requirements of the Bathing Water Directive, the
municipal wastewater treatment segment is set to increase its revenue share
over the next six to seven years. In the industrial sector, the process
water application segment dominates the disinfection systems. Demand from
sectors such as food and beverages for non-chemical disinfection for their
process water has benefited chemical-free solutions such as UV and ozone,
while the high-growth pharmaceutical sector is meeting its process water
disinfection technology needs with solutions involving UV or even membrane
Promising Growth Ahead for UV Systems and Advanced Chlorination Methods of
Chlorine-based compounds still retain a majority share of the market with an
estimated 40.7 per cent of the total revenues in the European water and
wastewater disinfection systems market in 2006. The current use of chlorine
gas and liquid chlorine in Europe continues to be high, particularly in the
municipal water and wastewater disinfection segment, but their revenues
could be affected due to the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in
these methods. "Due to the issue of DBPs in conventional chlorination
methods, the demand for UV and ozonation disinfection as well as advanced
chlorination methods such as chlorine dioxide-based disinfection is expected
to increase in the municipal drinking water segment," says the analyst. "The
use of UV is expected to rise during the forecast period by eating into the
share of the chlorine-based compounds."
Chlorine dioxide-based disinfection and electrolytic chlorination are
expected to become more widely used as they have the advantage of requiring
less chlorine, which results in less formation of DBPs. UV disinfection
systems are experiencing high growth and could catch up with the
chlorine-based compounds market by the end of the forecast period. Ozonation
systems are facing considerable competition from UV and chlorine
dioxide-based disinfection, which is hindering their growth to some extent.
A reduction in the prices of these systems could help them become more
affordable and achieve greater penetration outside the areas they are
prominent in at present, namely, wastewater disinfection and process water
treatment in industries such as food and beverages.
UV treatment plan gets state's blessing
By: TOM PFINGSTEN, North County Times
FALLBROOK -- The Fallbrook Public Utility District will pursue plans to
build an ultraviolet treatment center below Red Mountain Reservoir,
officials said last week.
The system, which will cost between $3 to $5 million, has been given the
first of several green lights needed from the California Health and Human
Services Agency, said the utility district's chief engineer, Joe Jackson.
"We're going to be budgeting construction money a year from now, so we'd
hope to start construction in the summer of 2008," Jackson said, adding that
the district's consultant on the project, McGuire-Malcolm Pirnie of Santa
Monica, has already started designing it.
"There are some details that we're going to meet with (state health
officials) and discuss," which will happen in a meeting during the first
week of June, he said. "We're going to take a preliminary design with us
when we go."
The system is needed to fulfill a new Environmental Protection Agency rule
that requires all open reservoirs to be fitted with covers or equipped with
filtration plants by 2012, so that outgoing drinking water is treated one
last time before being delivered to customers.
The water stored at Red Mountain has already been treated several times
before it reaches the 440 million-gallon reservoir, which was built in the
1970's to provide an emergency source of drinking water for the greater
It's not practical to cover the huge Red Mountain Reservoir because it has a
22-acre surface area, and a standard filtration plant would cost too much,
The water flowing out of the reservoir has never violated water quality
standards, and officials said they were frustrated at first with the new
rule because it called for an expensive, full-blown facility that they said
would be redundant in this case.
Using ultraviolet light to kill pathogens in the water is a much cheaper
solution, but its one that required the state's blessing because it is a
ground-breaking new technology, Jackson said.
A full-blown plant could cost as much as $20 to $30 million, he said,
whereas the ultraviolet system will cost only $3 to $5 million.
"These (UV treatment systems) are pretty rare, they have to be approved on a
case-by-case basis, and quite frankly, we're the first in California to take
this approach with an open reservoir," he said.
The process is not necessarily better than old-fashioned filtration, but is
simply cheaper and a bit faster, because in a filtration plant the water
would have to be disinfected using a similar process after being filtered,
anyway, Jackson said.
He said zapping the water with UV rays won't affect the mineral balance in
the water, but could reduce some contaminants that harm the taste, although
the difference probably won't be noticeable to the average customer.
Patti Roberts, a health services spokeswoman for the state, confirmed in
March that Fallbrook would be the first water district in the state to use
ultraviolet technology in this way.
"California does not have a UV system that treats water from uncovered
finished water reservoirs, which are potentially exposed to contamination
from birds, animals and the environment in general," Roberts wrote in an
e-mail in response to questions from the North County Times.
"There are very few of these uncovered finished water reservoirs in
California -- most have already been covered," she wrote.
On May 11, the state notified the utility district in a letter that its
concept was acceptable under the EPA rule, but placed some conditions on the
One condition is that the district cannot relax the other measures it has in
place now to ensure the water flowing out of Red Mountain Reservoir is
The other conditions are highly technical and address everything from how
effectively the system will kill pathogens to monitoring how algae effects
the ultraviolet treatment process.
The letter that the state sent to the district says that officials will need
to evaluate the final design before the project can be built and put into
Jackson said the district will have a better idea of its timeline after the
meeting with state officials in early June.
American Air & Water®, Inc. Awards Exclusive Canadian Distribution of UV
Yahoo News, May 8, 2007
American Air & Water®, Inc. awarded exclusive Canadian distribution of UV
disinfection systems to Canadian Air & Water, Inc. in an agreement signed by
the two companies. The exclusive distributor will market the UV systems
under the corporate brand Canadian Air & Water™ and the distinctive
sub-brands: Air Asure™ and Asure Water™.
American Air & Water®, Inc., a South Carolina Corporation, offers a complete
line of UV air, surface and water disinfection systems which greatly reduce
or eliminate microbial contaminants in the air or water for industrial,
commercial and residential establishments. In addition, American Air &
Water®, Inc. will support Canadian Air & Water, Inc. with proprietary
knowledge, engineering and formulas for the UV systems as well as
proprietary marketing materials, including video, web sites, catalogues,
brochures and training information.
Canadian Air & Water will use its business expertise to promote the
acquisition, resale, distribution and installation of UV air and water
disinfection systems in Canada. Canadian Air & Water is dedicated to become
a premier source for the most extensive line of ultraviolet air and water
purification products and services currently available across Canada.
Canadian Air & Water's mission is to deliver the best air and water
purification systems and services for virtually every building and process
environment in Canada. "Customers come first in our philosophy of building
strong relationships with our marketplace. Our people are what make us
strong and we build our company with their dedicated support to develop an
improved standard of protocols for critical air and water infrastructure in
Warren Lynn, President of American Air & Water®, Inc. states "We are pleased
to have secured our relationship with a Canadian organization headed up with
people like Robert Tulk. This is a match made in heaven that will help us
achieve our vision of providing a healthier and safer tomorrow. To that end,
we will continue to passionately pursue our mission of discovering and
delivering products which enhance the quality of life. We will continue our
journey and compile global information on health related products to
facilitate, educate and collaborate with all available resources to create
awareness with all people and help mankind by creating a healthier
For additional information on the exclusive Canadian distributorship contact
Warren Lynn or visit American Air & Water®, Inc. website:
Hanovia Wins Major Contract To Supply UV Disinfection Systems
Process and Control Today News Room
Hanovia Wins Major Contract To Supply UV Disinfection Systems To Chinese
UV disinfection specialist Hanovia has won a major contract to supply UV
disinfection systems to a leading pharmaceutical manufacturer in China. The
UV systems will be used for ultra-pure process water disinfection.
"This is our largest ever pharmaceutical order for the Chinese market and
cements our position as one of the leading suppliers of UV disinfection
systems to the global pharmaceutical industry. The support of our local
Chinese representative was instrumental in Hanovia winning this contact."
UV technology has many applications in the pharmaceutical industry,
including process water disinfection, TOC (total organic carbon) reduction,
ozone and chloramine destruction, and dechlorination.
UV systems are easy to install on existing pipework and require minimum
disruption and site preparation. Depending on the level of use, the only
routine maintenance required is changing the UV lamps every 12-24 months, a
simple procedure that can be carried out by on-site personnel. Once
installed, a plant can be kept operational 24 hours a day, without the
necessity of shutting down the system for routine sanitation and
UV disinfection facility going up
By Grant Warkentin /The Mirror
When it’s done, the building will house the city’s latest investment, a
multi-million-dollar ultraviolet disinfection facility for Campbell River’s
drinking water supply.
“The purpose of the ultraviolet light is to provide an extra level of
protection,” Brooks said.
The city’s drinking water supply, found in a recent international
competition to be fourth-best in the world, comes out of the John Hart Lake.
The city takes the water from BC Hydro’s penstocks, the three huge pipelines
that carry water from the lake to the powerhouse below, where the water is
used to generate electricity.
But before the water is sent through the turbines and out into the Campbell
River, it’s tapped by the city, sent through a chlorination station to kill
any bugs and diseases and is then pumped into city pipes.
Tests over the years have shown the water supply is remarkably clean, but
the city believes it’s a good idea to add an extra step to the system,
bombarding the water with ultraviolet light to kill any giardia or
cryptosporidium which can make people sick.
The bugs aren’t significantly present in the water supply right now, but the
city is looking towards the future.
“We just didn’t want to take any chances with our water system,” said Coun.
Roy Grant, who accompanied Brooks Wednesday morning on a tour of the
facility under construction.
The water supply flows from above the Campbell River into town through four
pipes. The original 12-inch-diameter water line, installed when Campbell
River was still a village in the late 1940s, is still in use but Brooks said
it will soon be retired once all the upgrades are completed. There is a
30-inch-diameter main line, a 20-inch line and a 10-inch line which serve
the city’s water needs and which are being diverted through the new
ultraviolet disinfection facility.
The recent irregularities in water pressure around town have been because
workers have to close some pipes and open others to install new pipes and
work on re-routing the water through the new facility.
Once the work is done, water will flow from the penstocks into the city’s
pipes, through the ultraviolet reactors and down towards the chlorination
station and into the water mains. It’s a big job to keep water flowing while
working on the pipes, but Brooks said the plan is to have it done before
“We wanted to get this done before consumption starts increasing,” he said.
The total cost of the project is around $4 million. The provincial
government is providing over $2.65 million for the project through its
Community Water Improvement Program.
Town UV system a go
By NEIL HORNER News Reporter
Qualicum Beach water drinkers should soon be able to quaff a glass of the
clear stuff without having to cringe at the taste of added chlorine.
In a report to council this week, town engineer Bob Weir said the numbers
are in for the proposal to use a decentralized ultraviolet disinfection
system and the totals look good.
“The financial breakdown and estimate is consistent with the current budget
allocation,” Weir said.
The proposed system will put an ultraviolet disinfection unit at each of the
five wellheads from the Berwick well field, replacing the original, more
expensive plan to route all the water through one central facility.
“The reactors are well suited to the decentralization proposed,” he said,
noting the municipality has already purchased four of the five reactors
required. With municipal staff doing much of the work, and a provincial
grant of $411,433, the system can be installed within the budget allocation
of no more than $800,000.
“The work plan contemplates the Town of Qualicum Beach acting as the general
contractor, with pipe fabrication, masonry and SCADA control being
subcontracted,” he said. “Town forces would undertake electrical, mechanical
and general building construction.”
He noted installation of an emergency backup generator for the system can be
incorporated at a future date.
When asked by Councillor Wendy Maurer whether the system would bring the
municipality in line with the medical health officer’s requirements for
water disinfection, Weir replied it went there, and beyond, noting many
residents find the current state of the water unacceptable.
“Someone said they were paying their water bill under protest,” he said.
“They said a cup of tea tasted like a cup of bleach.”
Although the system will meet Vancouver Health Authority requirements, Weir
said it is still unclear if the municipality will be able to get rid of
bleach entirely, but at very least they will be able to greatly reduce it.
“This completely satisfies the current VIHA requirements to disinfect our
water, but they withheld comment as to whether they may ask for measurable
residual [chlorine] in our system,” he said. “We hope we can deliver water
people remember with the taste we like.”
Council gave Weir the green light to go ahead with the project.
SET pushes AlGaN LEDs deeper into UV
GaN specialist Sensor Electonic Technology (SET) from Columbia, South
Carolina, has developed 247nm UV LEDs using its proprietary
migration-enhanced MOCVD growth technology.
President and CEO of SET, Remis Gaska, explained, “We have demonstrated
working semiconductor devices with peak emission wavelength shorter than
253.4 nm, which is emitted by conventional UV light sources such as mercury
lamps, widely used in fluorescence lamps and wafer/air disinfection
“We believe that AlGaN technology should allow us to fabricate devices with
wavelengths as short as 230 nm.”
He also stated that the company had already made commercial shipments of the
Berlin researchers buy reactor for UV work
A leading optoelectronics research group at the Technical University of
Berlin has ordered a Thomas Swan system to develop high-brightness
Researchers at the Technical University of Berlin in Germany have ordered a
Thomas Swan MOCVD reactor that they will use to develop high-performance
ultraviolet emitters based on AlGaN.
Aixtron will install the 3x2 inch wafer reactor at the university's
Eugene-Paul-Wigner cleanroom facility, alongside two other MOCVD tools. The
epitaxy kit, which features new control and safety systems, is said to have
a maximum deposition temperature of 1400°C.
Michael Kneissl, the head of TU Berlin's experimental nanophysics and
photonics research group, said, "Alongside our existing systems, [the new
tool] will be a useful platform for us to develop high-aluminum III-nitride
laser diodes and high-brightness ultraviolet LEDs."
Kneissl's group is part of TU Berlin's highly regarded Institute of Solid
State Physics, which has a strong reputation in cutting-edge optoelectronics
research. Other scientists at the institute include Dieter Bimberg, a
leading exponent of quantum-dot laser technology.
Kneissl himself was previously a research associate at the Xerox Palo Alto
Research Center (PARC), where he developed blue-violet laser diodes for
high-resolution printing applications.
Since then, he has also fabricated current-injection laser diodes on bulk
Aside from applications in high-resolution printing and next-generation
optical data storage, ultraviolet emitters based on AlGaN could potentially
be used to decontaminate dirty surfaces and water.
Last year, the Korean LED manufacturer Seoul Optodevice and ultraviolet LED
developer Sensor Electronic Technology signed a strategic partnership with
the aim of scaling up production of AlGaN-based devices.
Kneissl's research group is also working on high-power InGaN lasers, green
emitters, and GaN-based VCSELs.
British UV disinfection system first for China
British water disinfection specialist Hanovia has just sold its first UV
disinfection system for the Chinese automobile production market. The UV
system purifies water used for spray-cleaning the vehicles and for
electrophoresis dipping water. Situated at the end of the water treatment
line and treating a flow rate of 20m³/hour, the Hanovia UV system destroys
all water-borne microorganisms which, if allowed to grow, can contaminate
the water system by blocking pipelines or growing in the electrophoresis
'This is an important contract for us,' said Hanovia's managing director
'It is our first sale into the growing Chinese automobile production market
and was only possible because of the strong local support of our Chinese
Hanovia was selected over other companies because of our strong quality and
The customer is Beijing Anke Membrane and Engineering Co, one of the most
well-known and respected pure water package companies in the Chinese
The end user is a domestic automobile factory in Liuzhou City, Guangxi
Commenting on the installation, Hanovia's Chinese sales manager Peter Wang
said, 'The Chinese automobile production market is strong and growing.
Drinking Water Purification Using UV Lamps Becoming Even More Important
Drinking water purification with UV lamps: High power amalgam lamps made by
Heraeus Noblelight offer up to 16,000 operating hours and destroy germs and
pathogens in drinking water without the need for chemicals.
Drinking water treatment with UV radiation was the theme of an international
symposium of the materials network, Materials Valley e.V., which took place
at the end of February at the Hanau headquarters of Heraeus, the precious
metals- and technology group. The workshop was carried out as a joint
venture involving the specialist light source manufacturer Heraeus
Noblelight, the equipment and plant builders ITT Wedeco AG from Germany and
the Canadian company Trojan Technologies. More than 70 engineers and
technicians from Europe, North America and Asia attended and were able to
gain an insight into the state of the technology through a wide range of
presentations from both R&D and industry itself.
Alongside conventional techniques for disinfecting drinking water, notably
the use of chemicals such as chlorine and ozone and the use of filtration
systems, ultraviolet light is assuming increasing importance as an
environmentally friendly alternative. Drinking water is a valuable and
scarce resource, accounting for only 2.5% of the world's total water, with
the remainder being salt water. Clean drinking water is even more rare.
Untreated water containing germs is increasingly a health risk. Two million
people die every year as a result of drinking untreated drinking water,
resulting in infections and intestinal sicknesses. Worldwide drinking water
consumption is now six times what it was in 1900, while the population over
this time has only trebled. Impressive numbers, which do much to explain
what has become one of the most important problems of our times. Will there
be enough clean drinking water for us in the future and how can this be
UV Lamps: more efficient and longer-lasting
The treatment of drinking water with UV radiation is a very effective
physical process, used to disinfect water and to break down pollutants. The
very high energy radiation (at wavelengths from 200 to 300 nanometers)
destroys the genetic material and inactivates the individual cells of the
pathogens in the water such as bacteria, micro-organisms, fungi or parasites
and breaks down any chemicals harmful to health. Even chlorine-resistant
parasites such as cryptosporidia are inactivated with UV light. An important
benefit lies in the fact that this treatment technique does not use
The first patented UV purification was carried out in France in 1910 using
quartz glass lamps - a development going back to Richard Kuech, who was
director of R&D at Heraeus. Today, the challenges for UV lamps are those of
achieving significant increase in lamp efficiency and operating life.
To meet these challenges, Heraeus Noblelight has developed new UV lamps
(high power amalgam lamps) which offer up to 16,000 operating hours at
virtually constant UV output power, yielding significantly more power than
conventional lamps after 8,000 hours. Thanks to this higher power and long
operating life, systems builders now need to specify fewer lamps when
designing disinfection plants. This naturally gives rise to the potential
for significant savings in numbers of lamps, system components, energy
consumption and maintenance costs.
"In Germany and its neighbours Austria and Switzerland, the use of UV lamps
is a guarantee of the high drinking water quality which we take for granted.
There will be a need for a single European standard in UV treatment to cater
for the increasing European demand," explained Dr. Sven Schalk from Heraeus
UV technology is also becoming of increasing interest to system builders who
operate worldwide. ITT Wedeco AG, of Herford / Germany, can already point to
50,000 installations worldwide, from small domestic units to large
commercial plants, handling 90,000 cubic meters per hour, reported Peter
Kruger from ITT Wedeco.
The increase in environmental pollution caused by medications and drugs in
ground water was the theme of the presentation by Marc-Olivier Buffle of
Trojan Technologies, Canada. In order to destroy very complex
pharmaceuticals such as antibiotics and steroids, it makes good sense to use
a combination of UV radiation and a strong oxidant such as hydrogen
peroxide. This technique has already been used successfully in Holland's
largest drinking water reservoir at Isselmeer. However in Germany, to date,
this technique can only be used for wastewater treatment.
UV disinfection system treats process water
Unilever Netherlands has installed a Berson UV disinfection system to treat
process water at its margarine manufacturing plant in Rotterdam. The UV
system ensures that all mains water used in the plant has a CFU*/ml count of
less than 100. The water is used in the manufacturing of margarine brands
such as Becel and Blue Band.
"Although incoming mains water is of very high quality, it cannot always be
guaranteed to have less than 100 CFU/ml," commented a Unilever manager.
"The Berson UV system ensures the count is less than this by destroying
virtually any microorganisms remaining in the water," he added.
Mains water is first drawn into a break tank before being pumped through the
UV system at a flow rate of 40m³/hour.
From there it passes through a mesh filter to remove any large particles.
Based in the Netherlands, Berson UV is a world leader in UV technology for a
wide range of applications, including drinking-, process- and waste-water
treatment, dechlorination, ozone removal and TOC reduction.
March 16, 2007:
Conference hears about UV use in Europe
HANAU, GERMANY — Increasing demand in Europe for ultraviolet (UV)
treatment of drinking water sources means there will be a need for a
single European standard for UV treatment, said a spokesman for a
German manufacturer of specialty lights, according to a March 15 company
The release said Dr. Sven Schalk of Heraeus Noblelight spoke in Hanau in
late February at an international UV symposium, a joint venture of
his company, the equipment and plant builder ITT Wedeco AG, also of Germany,
and Trojan Technologies, a Canadian-based UV systems manufacturer.
The gathering of more than 70 engineers and technicians from Europe, North
America and Asia also heard Marc-Olivier Buffle of Trojan Technologies speak
about combining UV radiation and strong oxidation to destroy complex
pharmaceutical pollutants, such as antibiotics and steroids, that are now
found in water sources, the press release said.
According to the release, this system is now being used successfully to
treat drinking water in The Netherlands, but it can only be used in Germany
for wastewater treatment.
Conference attendees heard statements saying that recent development of
UV lamps offering longer operating hours and higher power means that
designers of disinfection plants can specify fewer lamps, resulting in cost
The conference was hosted by Materials Valley e.v., a network of companies,
universities and others involved in materials technology in Germany's Rhein-Main
March 7, 2007:
Calgon Carbon And Trojan Settle UV Patent Disputes
Pittsburgh, PA — Calgon Carbon Corporation CCC announced today that it has
reached an agreement with Trojan Technologies (Trojan) regarding legal
disputes related to certain Calgon Carbon patents for the use of
ultraviolet light to disinfect drinking water (the "Calgon Carbon UV
Patents"). This agreement resolves any and all claims by and between
Calgon Carbon, Trojan, its customers, and consultants in the litigations
that were pending in the Western District of New York and in Canada.
In exchange for an undisclosed cash payment by Trojan, Calgon Carbon will
grant Trojan worldwide immunity from all current and future legal action
related to the Calgon Carbon UV Patents.
Commenting on the announcement, John Stanik, president and chief executive
officer of Calgon Carbon, said, "The agreement with Trojan signifies the end
of a long and costly dispute between our two companies and allows Trojan and
its customers worldwide to utilize the technology covered by the Calgon
Carbon UV Patents for the control of Cryptosporidium and other
pathogens in drinking water."
UV Lamps generate ozone and remove greases and smells from exhaust air
Heraeus Noblelight (openPR.com)
Heraeus Noblelight is showing solutions with ultraviolet light for
air treatment at the ISH/Aircontec exhibition, which takes place in
Frankfurt from the 6th to 10th March. A particularly interesting application
is the use of ozone-generating UV lamps in kitchen exhaust hoods.
Here the UV radiation prevents grease deposits, prevents fires and
saves cleaning costs. UV radiation is an environmentally friendly and
economical alternative to chemical techniques. The ozone-generating UV
radiation of the UV lamps can be measured in Heraeus Nobelight’s
accredited measurement laboratory.
Treatment of Aerosols
The use of greases and oils in the kitchen leads to deposits in the kitchen
exhaust hoods and the flues, so that there is both an increased danger of
fire and the creation of a source smells. The physical method of UV
radiation is an economical and environmentally friendly alternative to
cost-intensive manual cleaning of the flues and frequent filter replacement.
By using special Heraeus UV lamps, ozone is generated inside the
kitchen hood from the oxygen within the environmental air. The emitted
radiation at a wavelength of 185nm is used to do this. The radiation at the
longer wavelength of 254nm photolyses the ozone into excited oxygen, which
oxidises the long chain molecules. Organic materials such as grease and
aromatics are continuously “cold combusted” and broken down. The exhaust
ducting and the exhaust hood remain grease-free, danger of fire is
significantly reduced and cooking smells in the exhaust air are completely
eliminated. Even at the high exhaust temperatures of up to 90ºC above a
grill, the ozone-generating UV lamps from Heraeus Noblelight are
extremely powerful. They are particularly suitable for situations where a
lot of grease is used to bake or fry, such as in fast food restaurants,
large kitchens and in the industrial production of fish and meat meals.
Unique internal coating ensures long operating life.
The unique Heraeus Longlife coating of the lamp tube is responsible for the
long life of their UV lamps. Moreover, the Heraeus Longlife coating
is transparent to the very short ozone-generating UV radiation at a
wavelength of 185nm. The operating life of the lamps is also significantly
extended in this wavelength range compared with conventional techniques.
Measurement of the ozone-generating radiation in the Heraeus laboratory
UV radiation at a wavelength of 185nm is completely absorbed by the
surrounding air at a distance of only 30cm from the lamp. Precise
measurements should be carried out only under vacuum conditions. The Heraeus
Measurement Laboratory has a vacuum chamber at its disposal and this is used
for the complete and trouble-free detection of the 185nm radiation, which
strongly absorbs oxygen. The design of the UV lamps can be optimally
matched to customer requirements: the output-dependent efficiency is
evaluated, the best mode of operation is defined and the output is
optimized. By means of investigations in the wind tunnel at the Heraeus
laboratory, the thermal parameters of the lamp can be observed so that the
lamp can be optimized with the operating temperature. Ozone measuring
equipment is used to check the generated ozone concentration. The lamps are
precisely matched to the equipment and the application.
Heraeus Noblelight is a manufacturer of special light sources. At the ISH/Aircontec
exhibition in Frankfurt/Main from the 6th to 10th March, Heraeus will be
showing a wide range of ultraviolet lamps for air oxidation and air
Since the development of UV lamp technology by Richard Kuech in 1904,
Heraeus Noblelight can look back to more than 100 years of experience in the
development, production and application of UV emitters. Through
innovations such as Longlife technology, Heraeus continues to set milestones
in the field of UV lamp technology to increase the productivity of
industrial processes. Heraeus Noblelight is an original equipment supplier
and a partner of choice for many systems’ builders involved in the
disinfection of water, air and surfaces, as well as for manufacturers of
systems for photo-chemistry and photo-oxidisation.
Heraeus Noblelight GmbH with its headquarters in Hanau, Germany and with
subsidiaries in the USA, Great Britain and China, is one of the technology-
and market-leaders in the production of specialist light sources. In 2005,
Heraeus Noblelight had an annual turnover of 79 Million € and employed 644
people worldwide. The organization develops, manufactures and markets
infrared and ultraviolet emitters for applications in industrial
manufacture, environmental protection, medicine and cosmetics, research,
development and analytical laboratories.
Using UV for Simultaneous Disinfection and Control of Unpleasant Tastes and
Odors in Drinking Water
Algae blooms in surface water sources often lead to off-tastes and odors in
finished drinking water. Because public confidence in overall drinking water
quality is closely related to aesthetic quality, there is increasing
interest in solving taste and odor issues. UV-oxidation, the
combination of UV and hydrogen peroxide, offers the ability to treat
taste and odor (T&O) while simultaneously performing highly-effective UV
Organic chemicals are responsible for off tastes and odors in drinking
water. Algae and bacteria release such chemicals into the water (following
an algae bloom). Geosmin, responsible for “earthy” odors, and
2-methylisoborneol (MIB), responsible for “musty” odors, are two examples of
compounds that cause T&O. In addition to aesthetic impacts, certain types of
blue-green algae produce toxic compounds (“algal toxins”), which can have
both acute and chronic impacts on animals and humans. Microcystin is perhaps
the best-know algal toxin, as it is regulated in several states/provinces
and by the World Health Organization.
Due to their small molecular weight and limited ability to adsorb to carbon,
these compounds are difficult to remove. Traditionally, water plants use
powdered activated carbon, granular activated carbon, ozone, or potassium
permanganate to remove the compounds responsible for taste and odor.
UV technologies are currently experiencing rapid growth in municipal
drinking water disinfection applications. For many utilities UV is
the best option to comply with the enhanced disinfection requirements or
provide a secondary barrier to chlorine-resistant pathogens. This is
primarily based on UV`s ability to inactivate many microorganisms,
especially Cryptosporidium, without forming harmful disinfection byproducts.
In addition, there is a growing awareness of UV-based advanced
oxidation processes for treating micropollutants in water. Many studies have
recently identified UV-oxidation (UV in combination with
hydrogen peroxide) as an efficient means to treat T&O-causing compounds in
The following article describes the nature of the T&O problem, describes
traditional solutions, and details the use of UV-oxidation for the
simultaneous treatment of T&O/algal toxins and disinfection. Finally, the
installation of UV-oxidation at Cornwall, Ontario, Canada is
January 2, 2007:
Avian flu virus unlikely to spread through wastewater and drinking water
treatment systems, Cornell researchers find
By Krishna Ramanujan
A close relative of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) can
be eliminated by waste and drinking water treatments, including
chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation and bacterial digesters. The
virus is harmless to humans but provides a study case of the pathways by
which the influenza could spread to human populations.
Cornell researchers studied the related virus, called H5N2, to see whether a
hypothetical mutated form of H5N1 could infect people through drinking and
wastewater systems. Researchers at Cornell and the U.S. Military Academy at
West Point collaborated on the study, published in a recent issue of
Environmental Engineering Science.
H5N2, a low-pathogenic avian influenza virus that is not contagious for
humans, is physically similar to H5N1, which has been lethal to millions of
birds globally and more than half of the almost 200 infected people mostly
through handling infected birds, since 2003. Researchers and officials are
concerned that if H5N1 mutates to transmit easily between people, a deadly
global pandemic could occur.
"It is unknown if H5N1 is more resistant" than H5N2 to procedures used by
the water management industry, said Araceli Lucio-Forster, the paper's lead
author and a teaching support specialist in Cornell's Department of
Microbiology and Immunology. Lucio-Forster will receive her Ph.D. in
microbiology from Cornell in January 2007.
Because H5N1 requires high-level biosafety facilities, Lucio-Forster and
colleagues used H5N2 as a surrogate virus. Given the similarities between
the two viruses, she thinks that if H5N1 entered the water treatment system,
"the virus should be inactivated, which means treated water may not be a
likely source of transmission," said Lucio-Forster.
Overall, avian flu viruses do not survive well outside of a host. Still, the
researchers tried to address concerns in the wastewater-treatment industry
that if a human outbreak occurred, contaminated feces passing through the
plant could infect plant workers and spread elsewhere through drinking
"You have some 50,000 treatment plants in the U.S., and all these operators
that run the plants were concerned that if there were an influenza outbreak
and everyone were sick, is it going to come into the plant and infect them
and others," said co-author Dwight Bowman, a professor of parasitology at
To test the effectiveness of UV radiation for killing the H5N2 virus,
the researchers exposed the virus in drinking water as well as in wastewater
effluents to UV light at varying levels. The treatment was very
effective in killing H5N2 at levels well within industry standards (and at
lower levels than are used for killing Cryptosporidium and Giardia in
For chlorine, which is mostly ubiquitous in U.S. drinking water, the results
were less definitive. Inactivation of H5N2 depends on both chlorine
concentrations and time of exposure. On average, U.S. treatment plants treat
drinking water with chlorine concentrations of 1 milligram per liter for 237
minutes. Under these conditions, the researchers found that H5N2 (and
probably H5N1) would be mostly inactivated, but further studies are needed
to see if the viruses stay active when they come out of feces or are at
different pH and salinity levels.
Similarly, the small laboratory-scale study found that bacterial digesters
also reduced H5N2 to undetectable levels after 72 hours, which is consistent
with industry standards. The researchers also found that higher digester
temperatures inactivated the virus more quickly.
The UV and chlorine tests were conducted at the U.S. Military
December 20, 2006: Motorola
patents cell phone that kills hidden bugs in microphones, earpiece cavities
US mobile phone giant Motorola has patented a cellphone that kills bacteria
lodged in the microphone and earpiece cavities.
The phone contains an LED that radiates ultra-violet light with a
wavelength of 250 nanometres, which is particularly lethal to bacteria.
Optical guides inside the phone body steer the UV light into the cavities
and sanitising takes just three minutes.
Motorola has said this is a novel way to kill bugs, as squirting germicide
into the holes can damage the internal electronics of a cellphone.
Also to protect the owner against UV exposure, the light only shines
when a flip cover is closed over the cavities, and to save battery drain,
the light is only activated when the phone is being charged.
According to New Scientist, Motorola has also made an alternative design, in
which the phone comes with a charger, which contains a UV lamp with
"light pipes" that channel light into the phone when it is sitting in its
December 5, 2006:
EPA issues final UV disinfection manual
The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has released the final guidance
manual for using ultraviolet (UV) disinfection technology for
bringing public water supplies into compliance with the Safe Drinking Water
Act, the American Water Works Association's WaterWeek reported recently.
The 436-page manual, which can be downloaded from the EPA Web site, is
designed for surface water systems required to install treatment under the
Long-Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule, the report noted.
The manual provides background on fundamentals of UV light, microbial
response to UV light, and UV reactors, according to the
The document also offers guidance on selection, design, installation,
testing, startup, operation, maintenance, monitoring, recording and
reporting of UV disinfection to comply with treatment requirements
the story said.
December 5, 2006:
Medium pressure UV for German water supplies
News Release from: Berson UV-techniek
Edited by the Processingtalk Editorial Team
Dutch company Berson UV-techniek has won the contract to supply a Berson
InLine100+ medium pressure UV disinfection system to the
Lahn-Dill-Kreis region of Hesse in Germany. The UV system will treat
drinking water for a number of towns in the southern part of the region. The
Berson system is certified by DVGW according to the new norm W294, parts 1,
2 and 3 (2006).
According to Mr Schnackenwinkel of the Lahn-Dill-Kreis Water Board, 'We
chose the Berson InLine100+ unit because of its automatic, mechanical wiping
This keeps the quartz sleeves surrounding the UV lamps clean at all
times - ensuring maximum UV efficiency - without the use of
Chemical cleaning, a necessity with DVGW-approved low pressure UV systems
currently on the market, is costly and environmentally unfriendly so we are
pleased to have found a cleaner, lower cost alternative'.
Adwin de Vocht, Berson International Sales Manager, added, 'Chemical
cleaning is also inefficient because a thin film of fouling is usually left
This means that low pressure systems currently available have to be
completely dismantled every few months for additional mechanical cleaning, a
complex procedure requiring each quartz sleeve to be removed and manually
This time-consuming and costly process requires the UV system to
be out of action for at least a day.
It also produces unwanted waste products which have to be dealt with
Another advantage of medium pressure UV is more effective
inactivation of micro-organisms.
Recent research has shown that Escherichia coli is able to recover more
easily following exposure to low pressure UV lamps.
This is less likely with medium pressure UV (see references 1, 2 and 3).
Based in the Netherlands, Berson UV is a world leader in UV
technology for a wide range of applications, including drinking, process
and waste-water treatment, dechlorination, ozone removal and TOC reduction.
It is one of the few suppliers in Germany capable of providing a complete
range of UV systems certified to the newest DVGW, W294 norm.